Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amélie Kuhrt

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

Published online March 2016 | e-ISBN: 9780199381135 | DOI:

More Like This

Show all results sharing this subject:

  • Middle Eastern History


Show Summary Details


Media, the country of the Medes, was situated in mountainous country south-west of the *Caspian Sea. The Medes spoke a language akin to Old *Persian. Fragments of the language (as either loanwords or part of a Medo-Persian koinē) have been identified in OP inscriptions. No Median writing has been found. Medes are attested in the annals of *Assyria from the 9th cent. bce. Sargon II (722–705) and Esarhaddon (680–669) report on Medes and their kings causing trouble. At present, 7th-cent. archaeological evidence for the Medes consists of isolated citadels (Godin Tepe, Nush-i Jan, deserted in the 6th cent.); a Median style in art has so far not been identified. Excavation at Hamadan (*Ecbatana), the main city of the Medes, has revealed no Median period remains. Around 612 bce attacks on the major Assyrian cities by the Medes, under their king Umakištar (= Cyaxares), and Babylonians resulted in the fall of Assyria (Fall of Nineveh chronicle, Grayson (see bibliog. below)). The Babylonian Nabonidus chronicle reports that Ištumegu (Astyages) attacked *Cyrus(1) of Persia and was defeated.

Article.  437 words. 

Subjects: Middle Eastern History

Full text: subscription required

How to subscribe Recommend to my Librarian

Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content. Please, subscribe or login to access all content. subscribe or purchase to access all content.