Article

Ecological Framework

Alex Gitterman, Carel B. Germain and Carolyn Knight

in Encyclopedia of Social Work

Published by NASW Press and Oxford University Press


Published online June 2013 | e-ISBN: 9780199975839 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199975839.013.118

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  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Human Behaviour and the Social Environment
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Ecological concepts and principles enable social workers to keep a simultaneous focus on people and their environments and their reciprocal relationships, not only in direct practice with individuals, families and groups, but also in influencing organizations and communities and in policy practice. Ecological concepts emphasize the reciprocity of person:environment exchanges, in which each shapes and influences the other over time. Ecological concepts are reviewed.

Keywords: people:environment (P:E) fit; abuses of power; habitat and niche; life course (individual, historical, and social time); life stressor; stress and coping; resilience; adversarial growth; deep ecology; ecofeminism; life-modeled practice; naturalistic research; constructivist research; participatory action research

Article.  5574 words. 

Subjects: Gender and Sexuality ; Human Behaviour and the Social Environment ; Race and Ethnicity

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