Journal Article

Fermentation of groundnut brittle by Lactococcus lactis produces γ-amino butyric acid and enhances nutritional quality and safety

Vibhuti Batra, Hitashi Lomash and Abhijit Ganguli

in Food Quality and Safety

Volume 2, issue 2, pages 83-87
ISSN: 2399-1399
Published online June 2018 | e-ISSN: 2399-1402 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fqsafe/fyy002

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Abstract

Objectives

The study aimed to evaluate the anti-nutrient reductions and γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) enrichments of chikki (peanut brittle), a popular of traditional snack food, using Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The nutritional, storage, and sensorial analysis in order to understand the safety and functionality of chikki following fermentation were attempted.

Materials and Methods

Partial fermentations of chikki were carried out using overnight grown culture of L. lactis samples. The fermented chikki were further analysed for GABA and anti-nutrients. The antioxidant profile, protein, and sugar were also analysed. The storage studies were carried on up to 2 months for functional property evaluations.

Results

Fermentations at 37°C, pH of 5, with 1% inoculum and incubation for 24 h were optimal conditions, and resulted in the GABA concentration of 816 mg/g, respectively, and the GABA concentration did not change significantly (P > 0.05) upon storage for upto a period of 2 months. Analysis of the fermented chikki revealed a slightly higher level of phenolic, flavonoid, protein, and sugar contents as compared to those which were not subjected to fermentation. The results of sensorial analysis showed an overall general acceptability on a 5-point hedonic scale to be 8.5 ± 0.01 (before storage) and 8.03 ± 0.01 (after storage). The fermented chikki also possessed antioxidant properties and significantly (P < 0.05) low levels of phytates with complete reductions of other anti-nutrients.

Conclusions

Traditionally prepared/manufactured chikki lacks GABA, possesses notable levels of anti-nutrients with lower phenolics, flavonoids, as well as antioxidants. Our study suggested a simple preparation of GABA could enrich the popular ethnic snack through fermentation by L. lactis subsp. lactis. The developed snack is acceptable, economical with good shelf life, and has substantially reduced levels of anti-nutrients originating from groundnuts affording consumer safety.

Keywords: γ-amino butyric acid; anti-nutrients; ethnic snack; Lactococcus lactis

Journal Article.  4139 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Physical Chemistry ; Agriculture and Farming ; Biological Engineering ; Biological Sciences ; Agricultural, Environmental, and Natural Resource Economics

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