Reference Entry


B. B. Lal

in Oxford Art Online

Published online January 2003 | e-ISBN: 9781884446054 | DOI:

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Site of an ancient city, once capital of the Kauravas of Mahābhārata epic fame, on the right bank of the Ganga River in Meerut District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Excavation (1950–52) of the ancient mound yielded evidence of five cultural periods. Period I (pre-1200 bc), the earliest occupation, was characterized by Ochre Colour Ware and the absence of iron. Period II (c. 1100–800 bc) was distinguished by Painted Grey Ware (PGW), the first use of iron and evidence of the horse. Other objects included beads of cornelian, agate, jasper and bone, bangles of glass (the earliest so far in India) and terracotta figurines of animals. The PGW occupation was destroyed by heavy flooding of the Ganga River. Not only was there ample evidence of river erosion at the foot of the riverside face of the mound, but washed-away material was also encountered in borings in the riverbed, some 15 m below water-level. A late stage of PGW has also been found in the earliest levels at Kausambi. These two pieces of archaeological evidence provide circumstantial evidence for the Puranic statement that during the reign of Nichakshu, fifth king after the war related in the ...

Reference Entry.  376 words. 

Subjects: Archaeology ; Prehistoric Art ; South and Southeast Asian Art

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