Journal Article

Analysis of anomalous electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability effects using a frequency domain controlled-source electromagnetic method

Kyubo Noh, Seokmin Oh, Soon Jee Seol, Ki Ha Lee and Joongmoo Byun

in Geophysical Journal International

Volume 204, issue 3, pages 1550-1564
ISSN: 0956-540X
Published online January 2016 | e-ISSN: 1365-246X | DOI:
Analysis of anomalous electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability effects using a frequency domain controlled-source electromagnetic method

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  • Geophysics
  • Oceanography and Hydrology


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We present a series of processes for understanding and analysing controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) responses for a conductive and permeable earth. To realize the CSEM response, a new 3-D CSEM forward modelling algorithm based on an edge finite element method for both electrically conductive and magnetically permeable heterogeneities is developed. The algorithm shows highly accurate results in validation tests against a semi-analytic solution for stratified earth and an integral form of the scattered field. We describe the vector behaviour of an anomalous magnetic field originating from a conductive and permeable anomaly when the loop sources are deployed over a conductive half-space. The CSEM response of the conductive and permeable anomaly is classified into three effects originating from: conductivity perturbations, permeability perturbations and the coupling of these two effects. The separated individual results and the corresponding integral equation form of the anomalous field help to better understand the physical behaviour. We confirm the characteristic features of the CSEM response from the conductive and permeable anomaly, for example, (1) the general dominance of the induction effect in the out-of-phase response accompanied by a non-negligible magnetization effect from the magnetic anomaly in a conductive half-space and (2) the dominance of near frequency-independent magnetization effects in the in-phase response at relatively low frequencies and change in ruling part of the in-phase response into the induction effect as the frequency increases. We also demonstrate the effect of coupling mode and show that its maximum contribution is limited to a few per cent level of other two modes, induction and magnetization mode, even when the heterogeneity of our model is strong. In our synthetic survey, using examples of land-based profiling surveys of low induction number and intermediate regime, we find that the effect of magnetization can be used as an indicator of the existence of magnetic material. One important point to note from this study is the importance of accurate cancelling-out or estimation of free-space responses, which can mask the magnetic responses to imaging the varying magnetic property.

Keywords: Numerical solutions; Electromagnetic theory; Magnetic and electrical properties

Journal Article.  8680 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Geophysics ; Oceanography and Hydrology

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