Journal Article

Ammonia-Nitrogen Added to Low-Crude-Protein Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid–Nitrogen Increases the Net Release of Alanine, Citrulline, and Glutamate Post–Splanchnic Organ Metabolism in Growing Pigs

Wilfredo D Mansilla, Kayla E Silva, Cuilan Zhu, Charles M Nyachoti, John K Htoo, John P Cant and Cornelis F M de Lange

in The Journal of Nutrition

Published on behalf of American Society for Nutrition

Volume 148, issue 7, pages 1081-1087
Published in print July 2018 | ISSN: 0022-3166
Published online June 2018 | e-ISSN: 1541-6100 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxy076
Ammonia-Nitrogen Added to Low-Crude-Protein Diets Deficient in Dispensable Amino Acid–Nitrogen Increases the Net Release of Alanine, Citrulline, and Glutamate Post–Splanchnic Organ Metabolism in Growing Pigs

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Abstract

Background

Dietary ammonia is rapidly absorbed but poorly used for urea synthesis in pigs fed low-crude-protein (low-CP) diets deficient in dispensable amino acid (DAA)–nitrogen.

Objective

We explored the effect of dietary ammonia on net amino acid (AA) balances in portal-drained viscera (PDV) and livers of pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA-nitrogen.

Methods

Eight barrows with an initial body weight (BW) of 26.5 ± 1.4 kg (mean + SD) were surgically fitted with 4 catheters each (portal, hepatic, and mesenteric veins and carotid artery). The pigs were restricted-fed (2.8 × 191 kcal/kg BW0.60) for 7 d, and every 8 h a diet deficient in DAA-nitrogen supplemented with increasing amounts of ammonia-nitrogen (CP = 7.76%, 9.27%, and 10.77% for the control and low- and high-ammonia diets, respectively). The treatment sequence was based on a 3 × 3 Latin-square design with 3 consecutive periods. On the last day of each period, blood flows in portal and hepatic veins were determined with a continuous infusion of ρ-amino hippuric acid into the mesenteric vein. Consecutive blood samples were taken for AA concentration in blood plasma, and AA balances were calculated for PDV and the liver.

Results

Cumulative release of citrulline (Cit) and proline (Pro) increased with ammonia supplementation in PDV but decreased for glutamine (Gln) and glycine (Gly) (Gln: −19.32 ± 3.56, −32.50 ± 3.73, and −42.11 ± 3.55 mmol/meal for the control and low- and high-ammonia groups, respectively; P ≤ 0.05). Cumulative release of alanine (Ala), glutamic acid (Glu), and Gln increased with ammonia supplementation across the liver (P ≤ 0.05). When combined, PDV+liver, the cumulative release of Ala, Cit, and Glu increased with ammonia-nitrogen supplementation (P ≤ 0.05).

Conclusion

Dietary ammonia could be used as a nitrogen supplement to increase the synthesis of Ala, Cit, and Glu across splanchnic organs in pigs fed a diet deficient in DAA-nitrogen.

Keywords: ammonia; dispensable amino acids; hepatic vein; liver; low-protein diet; nitrogen requirement; pigs; portal vein

Journal Article.  5149 words. 

Subjects: Medicine and Health ; Dietetics and Nutrition ; Biochemistry ; Food Microbiology ; Gut Microbiology

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