Journal Article

Chinese Military Evaluation of a Portable Near-Infrared Detector of Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas

Chun-yang Liang, Yang Yang, Chun-sen Shen, Hai-jiang Wang, Nai-Ming Liu, Zhi-wen Wang, Feng-lei Zhu and Ru-xiang Xu

in Military Medicine

Volume 183, issue 7-8, pages e318-e323
Published in print July 2018 | ISSN: 0026-4075
Published online June 2018 | e-ISSN: 1930-613X | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usx088
Chinese Military Evaluation of a Portable Near-Infrared Detector of Traumatic Intracranial Hematomas

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  • Medicine and Health
  • Emergency Medicine
  • Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Military Psychology
  • Warfare and Defence

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Abstract

Introduction

Secondary brain injury is the main cause of mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hallmark of TBI is intracranial hemorrhage, which occurs in 40–50% of severe TBI cases. Early identification of intracranial hematomas in TBI patients allows early surgical evacuation and can reduce the case fatality rate of TBI. As pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, there is an urgent need for a capability to detect brain hematomas early. In China, in addition to preventing injuries and diseases in military staff and in enhancing the military armed forces during war, military medicine participates in actions such as emergency public health crises, natural disasters, emerging conflicts, and anti-terrorist campaigns during peacetime. The purpose of this observational study is to evaluate in the Chinese military general hospital the performance of a near-infrared (NIR)-based portable device, developed for US Military, in the detection of traumatic intracranial hematomas. The endpoint of the study was a description of the test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values [NPV]) of the portable NIR-based device in identification of hematomas within its detection limits (volume >3.5 mL and depth <2.5 cm) compared with computed tomography (CT) scans as the gold standard.

Materials and Methods

The Infrascanner Model 2000 NIR device (InfraScan, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, USA) was used for hematoma detection in patients sustaining TBI. Data were collected in the People’s Liberation Army General Hospital in Beijing using the NIR device at the time of CT scans, which were performed to evaluate suspected TBI. One hundred and twenty seven patients were screened, and 102 patients were included in the per protocol population. Of the 102 patients, 24 were determined by CT scan to have intracranial hemorrhage. The CT scans were read by an independent neuroradiologist who was blinded to the NIR measurements.

Results

The NIR device demonstrated sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 82.8–100%) and specificity of 93.6% (95%CI 85–97.6%) in detecting intracranial hematomas larger than 3.5 mL in volume and that were less than 2.5 cm from the surface of the brain. Blood contained within scalp hematomas was found to be a major cause of false-positive results with this technology.

Conclusion

The study showed that the Infrascanner is a suitable portable device in Chinese population for detecting preoperative intracranial hematomas in remote locations, emergency rooms, and intensive care units. It could aid military medics, physicians, and hospital staff, permitting better triage decisions, earlier treatment, and reducing secondary brain injury caused by acute and delayed hematomas.

Keywords: Intracranial hemorrhage; Hematoma; Traumatic brain injury; TBI; Near infrared; NIR

Journal Article.  3669 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Medicine and Health ; Emergency Medicine ; Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery ; Military Psychology ; Warfare and Defence

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