Journal Article

The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

Osvaldo Marinotti, Gustavo C. Cerqueira, Luiz Gonzaga Paula de Almeida, Maria Inês Tiraboschi Ferro, Elgion Lucio da Silva Loreto, Arnaldo Zaha, Santuza M. R. Teixeira, Adam R. Wespiser, Alexandre Almeida e Silva, Aline Daiane Schlindwein, Ana Carolina Landim Pacheco, Artur Luiz da Costa da Silva, Brenton R. Graveley, Brian P. Walenz, Bruna de Araujo Lima, Carlos Alexandre Gomes Ribeiro, Carlos Gustavo Nunes-Silva, Carlos Roberto de Carvalho, Célia Maria de Almeida Soares, Claudia Beatriz Afonso de Menezes, Cleverson Matiolli, Daniel Caffrey, Demetrius Antonio M. Araújo, Diana Magalhães de Oliveira, Douglas Golenbock, Edmundo Carlos Grisard, Fabiana Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabíola Marques de Carvalho, Fernando Gomes Barcellos, Francisco Prosdocimi, Gemma May, Gilson Martins de Azevedo Junior, Giselle Moura Guimarães, Gustavo Henrique Goldman, Itácio Q. M. Padilha, Jacqueline da Silva Batista, Jesus Aparecido Ferro, José M. C. Ribeiro, Juliana Lopes Rangel Fietto, Karina Maia Dabbas, Louise Cerdeira, Lucymara Fassarella Agnez-Lima, Marcelo Brocchi, Marcos Oliveira de Carvalho, Marcus de Melo Teixeira, Maria de Mascena Diniz Maia, Maria Helena S. Goldman, Maria Paula Cruz Schneider, Maria Sueli Soares Felipe, Mariangela Hungria, Marisa Fabiana Nicolás, Maristela Pereira, Martín Alejandro Montes, Maurício E. Cantão, Michel Vincentz, Miriam Silva Rafael, Neal Silverman, Patrícia Hermes Stoco, Rangel Celso Souza, Renato Vicentini, Ricardo Tostes Gazzinelli, Rogério de Oliveira Neves, Rosane Silva, Spartaco Astolfi-Filho, Talles Eduardo Ferreira Maciel, Turán P. Ürményi, Wanderli Pedro Tadei, Erney Plessmann Camargo and Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos

in Nucleic Acids Research

Volume 41, issue 15, pages 7387-7400
Published in print August 2013 | ISSN: 0305-1048
Published online June 2013 | e-ISSN: 1362-4962 | DOI:

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  • Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Bioinformatics and Computational Biology
  • Genetics and Genomics
  • Molecular and Cell Biology


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Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at

Journal Article.  7865 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Chemistry ; Biochemistry ; Bioinformatics and Computational Biology ; Genetics and Genomics ; Molecular and Cell Biology

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