Ideas associated with community and problem-oriented policing came about in the late 1980s and early 1990s partly in reaction to concerns about rises in crime, partly in recognition that older police strategies were not working particularly well, partly as a means of reconnecting the police to urban communities, most particularly minority and under-privileged communities, and partly to increase the transparency and accountability of policing to its many publics. For a number of years prior to the late 1980s policing in the United States and other Western countries was “experimenting” with police models that focused police attention on local communities and their crime, disorder, and fear problems. Several of these “experiments” were short lived, but collectively ideas associated with neighborhood and team policing exerted influence on how the police were to provide safety and security to urban communities, while at the same time maintaining community support and confidence. At the same time criminology, building on earlier work, focused more attention on the role of communities in crime, and what has become known as situational crime prevention. The convergence of a police neighborhood focus with academic theories emphasizing place as a major determinant of criminality represented a major shift for policing worldwide. From these early roots community and problem-oriented policing rose in police thought and practice and have spread as both the rationale for policing (community focus) as well as the preferred method of police intervention (problem solving). The following series of references is partitioned in five major ways. First, there are references on the intellectual development of community and problem-oriented policing as they evolved and have continued to the present. Second, are references that provide some assessment of community and problem-oriented policing interventions, although it has been demonstrated that many of these efforts lacked scientific rigor. Third, “Hot Spots” policing, as a variant of problem-oriented policing, has gained considerable intellectual, program, and evaluation attention, so a separate section is devoted to this topic. Fourth, references are provided that focus on the institutional, organizational, and police work changes that are often associated with implementing community and problem-oriented policing. Fifth, references are provided that focus on the future of community and problem-oriented policing and international efforts emphasizing the larger social attachments of the police, as well as their role for safety and security in modern society.
Article. 19542 words.
Subjects: Criminology and Criminal Justice ; Criminal Justice ; Criminology
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