; order Diptera, suborder Nematocera)
Family of minute, moth-like flies in which the legs, body, and wings are covered in long, coarse hairs and often scales. The larvae are mostly amphipneustic, and usually aquatic or saprophagic. Females of some genera, e.g. Phlebotomus, are bloodsuckers, attacking vertebrates. These include the ‘sand fly’, which is known to be a vector of leishmaniasis and other related human diseases. The family has a world-wide distribution, and more than 500 species are known to exist.
Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.