Benjamí Costa

in The Oxford Handbook of the Phoenician and Punic Mediterranean

Published in print October 2019 | ISBN: 9780190499341
Published online August 2019 | e-ISBN: 9780190499365 | DOI:

Series: Oxford Handbooks


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The formation of a Semitic society based on the island of Ibiza was the result of the superimposition, during the Archaic period, of two distinct elements: eastern Phoenicians and Punics. During the fifth and fourth centuries bce, Punic Ibiza reached its maximum economic and demographic development, possibly because of its role as a crucial agent of Carthaginian policy toward Iberian communities in the mainland and the Balearic Islands. After the Second Punic War, all defeated Punic states that sided with Carthage were left under the dominion of the Roman Republic. In the case of Punic Ibiza, the author proposes a process with three main steps: first, a deditio after the Second Punic War; second, a federation agreement, which could have taken place possibly after the Sertorian episode, in the year 81 bce; and third, the municipalization after the decree promulgated by Vespasianus in 74 ce, which converted Hispanic towns that were still peregrinae, like Ibiza, into municipalities ruled by the Latin Law.

Keywords: Ibiza (Eivissa); Puig des Molins; Phoenician; Punic; agricultural colonization; trade; economic growth; coin; Romanization

Article.  7188 words. 

Subjects: Archaeology by Region

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