Journal Article

ROS Induces Anthocyanin Production Via Late Biosynthetic Genes and Anthocyanin Deficiency Confers the Hypersensitivity to ROS-Generating Stresses in Arabidopsis

Zhenhua Xu, Kashif Mahmood and Steven J. Rothstein

in Plant and Cell Physiology

Published on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists

Volume 58, issue 8, pages 1364-1377
Published in print August 2017 | ISSN: 0032-0781
Published online June 2017 | e-ISSN: 1471-9053 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcx073
ROS Induces Anthocyanin Production Via Late Biosynthetic Genes and Anthocyanin Deficiency Confers the Hypersensitivity to ROS-Generating Stresses in Arabidopsis

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Abstract

Anthocyanins are known to have antioxidant activities. Their accumulation can be triggered by many chemical and environmental factors, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the mechanism of ROS-induced anthocyanin accumulation and the role of anthocyanins in the response of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to different stresses are largely unknown. Here, we study the cross-regulation between ROS and anthocyanin production. Ten Arabidopsis mutants covering the main anthocyanin regulatory and biosynthetic genes are systematically analyzed under ROS-generating stresses. We find that ROS triggers anthocyanin accumulation by up-regulating the anthocyanin late biosynthetic and the corresponding regulatory genes. The anthocyanin-deficient mutants have more endogenous ROS and are more sensitive to ROS-generating stresses while having decreased antioxidant capacity. Supplementation with cyanidin makes them less susceptible to ROS, with increased anthocyanin and reduced ROS accumulation. In contrast, pap1-D, which overaccumulates anthocyanins, shows the opposite responses. Gene expression analysis reveals that photosynthetic capacity is more impaired in anthocyanin-deficient mutants under high-light stress. Expression levels of ROS-scavenging enzyme genes are not correlated with the radical-scavenging activity in different mutants. We conclude that ROS are an important source signal to induce anthocyanin accumulation by up-regulating late biosynthetic and the corresponding regulatory genes and, as a feed-back regulation, anthocyanins modulate the ROS level and the sensitivity to ROS-generating stresses in maintaining photosynthetic capacity.

Keywords: Abiotic stress; Anthocyanin; Arabidopsis thaliana; Plant; Reactive oxygen species (ROS); Stress response

Journal Article.  9525 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Molecular Biology and Genetics ; Biotechnology ; Biochemistry ; Bioinformatics and Computational Biology ; Molecular and Cell Biology ; Plant Sciences and Forestry ; Plant Physiology

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