Journal Article

The Informational Content of Surnames, the Evolution of Intergenerational Mobility, and Assortative Mating

Maia Güell, José V. Rodríguez Mora and Christopher I. Telmer

in The Review of Economic Studies

Volume 82, issue 2, pages 693-735
Published in print April 2015 | ISSN: 0034-6527
Published online December 2014 | e-ISSN: 1467-937X | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/restud/rdu041
The Informational Content of Surnames, the Evolution of Intergenerational Mobility, and Assortative Mating

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We propose a new methodology for measuring intergenerational mobility in economic well-being. Our method is based on the joint distribution of surnames and economic outcomes. It circumvents the need for intergenerational panel data, a long-standing stumbling block for understanding mobility. It does so by using cross-sectional data alongside a calibrated structural model to recover the traditional intergenerational elasticity measures. Our main idea is simple. If “inheritance” is important for economic outcomes, then rare surnames should predict economic outcomes in the cross-section. This is because rare surnames are indicative of familial linkages. If the number of rare surnames is small this approach will not work. However, rare surnames are abundant in the highly skewed nature of surname distributions from most Western societies. We develop a model that articulates this idea and shows that the more important is inheritance, the more informative will be surnames. This result is robust to a variety of different assumptions about fertility and mating. We apply our method using the 2001 census from Catalonia, a large region of Spain. We use educational attainment as a proxy for overall economic well-being. A calibration exercise results in an estimate of the intergenerational correlation of educational attainment of 0.60. We also find evidence suggesting that mobility has decreased among the different generations of the 20th century. A complementary analysis based on sibling correlations confirms our results and provides a robustness check on our method. Our model and our data allow us to examine one possible explanation for the observed decrease in mobility. We find that the degree of assortative mating has increased over time. Overall, we argue that our method has promise because it can tap the vast mines of census data that are available in a heretofore unexploited manner.

Keywords: Surnames; Intergenerational mobility; Cross-sectional data; Population genetics; Assortative mating; Siblings; C31; E24; J1

Journal Article.  19048 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Demographic Economics ; Macroeconomics: Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment ; Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables

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