Journal Article

Absorbed dose measurements of a handheld 50 kVP X-ray source in water with thermoluminescence dosemeters

Christopher Soares, Chris Drupieski, Brian Wingert, Garey Pritchett, Vasilis Pagonis, Michelle O'Brien, Alan Sliski, Pawel Bilski and Pawel Olko

in Radiation Protection Dosimetry

Volume 120, issue 1-4, pages 78-82
Published in print September 2006 | ISSN: 0144-8420
Published online May 2006 | e-ISSN: 1742-3406 | DOI:
Absorbed dose measurements of a handheld 50 kVP X-ray source in water with thermoluminescence dosemeters

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  • Nuclear Chemistry, Photochemistry, and Radiation


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Absorbed dose rate measurements of a 50 kVp handheld X-ray probe source in a water phantom are described. The X-ray generator is capable of currents of up to 40 μA, and is designed for cranial brachytherapy and intraoperative applications with applicators. The measurements were performed in a computer-controlled water phantom in which both the source and the detectors are mounted. Two different LiF thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) phosphors were employed for the measurements, MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P). Two small ionisation chambers (0.02 and 0.0053 cm3) were also employed. The TLDs and chambers were positioned in watertight mounts made of water-equivalent plastic. The chambers were calibrated in terms of air-kerma rate, and conventional protocols were used to convert the measurements to absorbed dose rate. The TLDs were calibrated at National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in terms of absorbed dose rate using a 60Co teletherapy beam and narrow-spectrum X-ray beams. For the latter, absorbed dose was inferred from air-kerma rate using calculated air-kerma-to-dose conversion factors. The reference points of the various detectors were taken as the center of the TLD volumes and the entrance windows of the ionisation chambers. Measurements were made at distances of 3–45 mm from the detector reference point to the source center. In addition, energy dependence of response measurements of the TLDs used was made using NIST reference narrow spectrum X-ray beams. Measurement results showed reasonable agreement in absorbed dose rate determined from the energy dependence corrected TLD readings and from the ionisation chambers. Volume averaging effects of the TLDs at very close distances to the source were also evident.

Journal Article.  2403 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Nuclear Chemistry, Photochemistry, and Radiation

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