Journal Article

Effects of high ambient temperature on the community structure and composition of ileal microbiome of broilers

X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma and S S Chang

in Poultry Science

Published on behalf of Poultry Science Association

Volume 97, issue 6, pages 2153-2158
Published in print June 2018 | ISSN: 0032-5791
Published online March 2018 | e-ISSN: 1525-3171 | DOI:
Effects of high ambient temperature on the community structure and composition of ileal microbiome of broilers

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The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3–4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA. High temperature had no significant effects, but tended to influence the relative abundance of major phyla and orders in the broilers’ ileal microbiota. Analysis of linear effect size feature selection identified 9 discriminative features (genus level, linear discriminant analysis score > 3). Clostridium XIVb, Streptophyta, Faecalibacterium, Rothia, Alistipes, Azospirillum, and Oscillibacter were enriched, while Coprococcus and Streptococcus were reduced in heat-stressed broilers. High temperature significantly influenced the alpha diversity, with higher observed species (P = 0.004), whole-tree phylogenetic diversity (P = 0.002), and Chao 1 (P = 0.002), but the Pielou, Shannon, and Simpson indices were unaltered (P > 0.05), indicating that high temperature increased the ileal microbiota species richness. Based on unweighted UniFrac distance metric matrices, principal component analysis showed that the HT group formed a distinct cluster clearly set apart from the TC group. Analysis of similarity also indicated that samples within groups were more similar to each other than to any samples from other groups (R = 0.626; P = 0.004). In conclusion, high temperature influenced the bacterial composition and community structure of the ileal microbiota of broilers, specifically by increasing the species richness.

Keywords: community structure; ileal microbiota; broiler chicken; high temperature; pyrosequencing

Journal Article.  2915 words.  Illustrated.

Subjects: Food Microbiology

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