Book

Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank

Published on behalf of Oxford University Press

Published in print June 2014 | ISBN: 9780199862955
Published online November 2014 | e-ISBN: 9780199374564 | DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1093/med/9780199862955.001.0001

Series: Oxford Medical Handbooks

Specific Learning Disabilities

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Brain Correlates of Learning

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 6613 words.

General biological characteristics of learning and memory may be common to all living systems. Many cellular structures and metabolic pathways underlying learning are similar in humans and...

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Conclusions

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 3297 words.

Although specific learning disability (SLD), including dyslexia, is defined in terms of academic failure, SLD children differ from normal children on a variety of dimensions. In addition to...

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Diagnosing Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 7112 words.

The purpose of the evaluation is to confirm a possible diagnosis of specific learning disability (SLD), identification of a possible behavioral comorbidity, and finding an etiology for the...

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Dyscalculia

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 11871 words.

Knowledge of mathematics is important for the individual and for society. For the affected individual, low numeracy causes daily difficulties, and, similar to low literacy, is a handicap...

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Genetics of Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 4024 words.

The genetic component in the ability to learn is different for different types of learning. An interesting study examined the genetic factor in absolute pitch (AP), the ability to recognize...

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Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities I

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 8700 words.

Specific Learning Disabilities result from cognitive deficiencies—specific deficiencies in brain functions important for learning. Are these deficiencies the result of a structural brain...

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Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities II

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 1802 words.

More detailed morphologic imaging studies of dyslexia were done using volumetric methods. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a technique characterizing regional cerebral volume and tissue...

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Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities III

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 5215 words.

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a neuroimaging method that provides information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within individual voxels of the magnetic resonance image,...

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Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities IV

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 5111 words.

Advantages of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) over positron emission tomography (PET) include a higher spatial and temporal resolution, and the fact that there is no need for...

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Neuroanatomy of Specific Reading Disabilities V

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 3869 words.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records spontaneous or evoked brain electrical activity and its topography. In addition, it can time electrical brain activities in response to stimuli. Its...

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Neurophysiological Studies of Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 5143 words.

The electroencephalogram (EEG) is a recording of brain electrical activity. The recording is done through electrodes, which are attached to the scalp in standard locations. Electrical...

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Neuropsychological Abnormalities Underlying Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 6975 words.

Specific learning disabilities (SLD) are a group of conditions usually distinguished by academic difficulties. Such difficulties can involve reading, (including basic reading skills and...

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Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 5151 words.

Ever since the time of Broca (1861) and Wernicke (1874), neurobiologists have been trying to map different functions to one or both cerebral hemispheres, mainly through the study of...

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Not Simply a Learning Problem

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 5385 words.

Although the major manifestation of specific learning disability (SLD) is the disturbance of school performance, these conditions are not simply academic handicaps. Specific learning...

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Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 5085 words.

The term “specific learning disability” (SLD) applies to specific areas of academic learning in subjects who are intellectually normal, with normal vision and hearing, who do not have any...

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Theories of Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 5330 words.

The fact that some people have a learning disability has been recognized since the end of the 19th century. It has also been suspected that such disabilities are related, at least...

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Treatment of Specific Learning Disabilities

Yitzchak Frank.

in Specific Learning Disabilities

June 2014; p ublished online November 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Neurology. 12323 words.

Treatment of medical conditions follows, in general, one of a number of patterns. One pattern is prevention—taking measures to prevent the condition from happening. A second pattern is a...

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