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Eagles, Thomas (bap. 1746, d. 1812), classical scholar and merchant

Gordon Goodwin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Education; Classical Studies. 430 words.

Eagles, Thomas (bap. 1746, d. 1812), classical scholar and merchant, was baptized in the parish of Temple Holy Cross, Bristol, on 28 April 1746. He was descended on his father's side from a...

euergetism

Arjan Zuiderhoek.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Greek History; Ancient Roman History. 3870 words.

Euergetism is the modern scholarly term, derived from the ancient Greek euergetes (benefactor), to denote the phenomenon of elite gift-giving to cities (or to groups within...

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fiscus

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 514 words.

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freedmen/freedwomen, Greek

David M. Lewis and Sara Zanovello.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 7748 words.

In the Greek world, manumission, which spelt the end of an individual’s life in slavery, was achieved in a variety of ways, but it often entailed legal obligations to remain (paramenein) as...

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friendship, ritualized

G. Herman.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Classical Literature; Classical Philosophy. 1815 words.

Friendship, ritualized (or guest-friendship), a bond of trust, imitating kinship and reinforced by rituals, generating affection and obligations between individuals belonging to separate social...

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frugality (frugalitas) and parsimony (parsimonia)

Grant Nelsestuen.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online November 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Roman History. 2971 words.

Arising from the agrarian and domestic contexts of classical antiquity, the notion of “frugality” (frugalitas) was a positive, desirable, and in many respects distinctively Roman concept...

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fulling

Miko Flohr.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online October 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 3147 words.

The practice of fulling woollen garments was never part of an integrated textile production chain in the Greco-Roman world, though in several contexts, there were developments towards...

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gift, Greece

G. Herman.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 638 words.

In the Homeric poems, gift-giving perhaps receives more attention than any other peaceful heroic activity. It has three outstanding features. First, gifts have an extremely wide range of...

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gifts and giving, Roman

Neil Coffee.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Roman History. 2822 words.

Romans not only gave gifts to express emotion and build relationships; a long-standing tradition of mutual aid gave rise to more intensive exchange of gifts and services (or reciprocity),...

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glass

Frederick Norman Pryce and Michael Vickers.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; History of Science and Technology; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 526 words.

Glass (ὕαλος (also 'rock crystal'), vitrum). The art of producing a vitreous surface on stone, powdered quartz (faience), or clay was known in pre-dynastic Egypt and passed to Crete during the second...

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hippeis

John F. Lazenby and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 984 words.

In a number of Greek states the aristocracy was known as the ‘hippeis’ (e.g. *Eretria and Boeotian *Orchomenus(1); and cf. the ‘hippobotai’, of *Chalcis and, below, the Spartan élite (§ 3) and...

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indictio

Arnold Hugh Martin Jones.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Byzantine Studies; Greek and Roman Law. 144 words.

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institores

Jean-Jacques Aubert.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online May 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 2085 words.

Because of the traditional reluctance of the Roman elite to engage personally in profit-oriented economic activities other than agriculture (Cic., Off. 1.151), entrepreneurs of all kinds...

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latifundia

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Economic History.

[MC]

Large planned agricultural estates geared to efficient production and high profits through the use of cheap, often slave labour. Although strictly a Roman term, its use...

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latifundia

M. Stephen Spurr.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Historical Geography; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 616 words.

Latifundia (large estates) ‘have ruined Italy and are now ruining the provinces’. *Pliny (1) the Elder (HN 18. 35) put latifundia at the centre of debate about the development of the Roman rural...

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Leaf, Walter (1852–1927), banker and classical scholar

William C. Lubenow.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Banking; Education; Classical Studies. 1505 words.

Leaf, Walter (1852–1927), banker and classical scholar, was born at Gibson's Hill, Norwood, Surrey, on 26 November 1852. Small, short-sighted, and frail as a child, Leaf's education,...

M. I. Finley

Overview page. Subjects: Economics — Classical Studies.

(1912–86)

Sir Moses Finley was born in New York City as Moses Israel Finkelstein on 20 May 1912. He died in Cambridge on 23 June 1986. Growing up in New ...

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maritime loans

Dominic W. Rathbone.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law; Ancient Roman History. 1366 words.

In the ancient Greek and Roman worlds, centred as they were on the Mediterranean, maritime transport was far more practical than land transport for long- and even medium-distance trade. Most ships...

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Mediterranean Sea and Region

Overview page. Subjects: Economic History — Classical Studies.

The Mediterranean Sea, known in Arabic as the “White Sea,” is the largest inland sea in the world, covering some 965,000 square miles (2.5 million square kilometers). Lying amid the ...

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metics

David Whitehead.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 330 words.

As the Greek *polis evolved it sought to differentiate, amongst its inhabitants, between insiders and outsiders. Insiders par excellence were its own members, the citizens; palpable outsiders were...

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