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Arab Spring

Marion W. Dixon.

in African Studies

P ublished online September 2018 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 11548 words.

The term “Arab Spring” refers to the wave of protests that swept across the Arab world beginning in December 2010 and lasting roughly through the spring of 2011. These events are referred...

Arabic Language and Literature

Aida Bamia.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2013 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 22369 words.

There is a general tendency to confuse Arab and Muslim identities. While the majority of Arabs are Muslim, most Muslims are not Arabs. There are also non-Muslim Arabs. The first Arab...

Archaeology and the Study of Africa

Ann B. Stahl.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 16084 words.

Africa is the birthplace of humankind and a continent of tremendous social and cultural diversity. As such, knowledge of Africa’s past is central to understanding our species’ deep history;...

Archaeology of Eastern Africa

Matthew Davies.

in African Studies

P ublished online May 2015 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 31456 words.

Defined here as Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania (and, where appropriate, adjacent regions), eastern Africa has among the deepest archaeological records on the planet. Some of the oldest stone...

Archaeology of Eastern Africa

Matthew Davies.

in African Studies

P ublished online May 2015 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 31456 words.

Defined here as Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania (and, where appropriate, adjacent regions), eastern Africa has among the deepest archaeological records on the planet. Some of the oldest stone...

Archaeology of Southern Africa

Peter Mitchell.

in African Studies

P ublished online November 2015 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 10967 words.

Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique) boasts one of the world’s longest archaeological records and its 3.5 million square...

Architecture

Antoni Scholtens Folkers.

in African Studies

P ublished online June 2016 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 9723 words.

This bibliography approaches the topic of architecture from a broad perspective, subdividing it into the disciplines of architectural history, building technology, urbanism, and...

Arkwright, Sir John Stanhope (1872–1954), politician and hymn writer

Ian Bradley.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2008 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; Religion; Composition. 1535 words.

Arkwright, Sir John Stanhope (1872–1954), politician and hymn writer, was born at 11 Lowndes Street, London, on 10 July 1872, the only son (there were three daughters) of John Hungerford...

Armstrong, Sir Thomas Henry Wait (1898–1994), organist and college administrator

Richard Stoker.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Organization and Management of Education; Keyboard. 1914 words.

Armstrong, Sir Thomas Henry Wait (1898–1994), organist and college administrator, was born on 15 June 1898 at Peterborough, the only son of Amos Ebenezer Armstrong (1878–1950), an organist...

Arnell, Richard Anthony Sayer

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Literature; Publishing; Music. 474 words.

Born 15 Sept. 1917; s of late Richard Sayer Arnell and Hélène Marie Scherf; m 1992, Joan Heycock; one s three d from former marriages; died 10 April 2009

composer;...

Art, Art History, and the Study of Africa

Patrick McNaughton and Diane Pelrine.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2012 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 12881 words.

African cultures have created sumptuous and subtle art in numerous materials for many millennia. Change has been constant, as we know from the ancient arts of Nigeria, Zimbabwe, and Mali....

Arts of Central Africa

Allen F. Roberts.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2013 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 13623 words.

Central Africa consists of the Democratic Republic of the Congo or DRC, the Republic of the Congo or Congo/Brazza, the Central African Republic or CAR, and the Republics of Chad, Burundi,...

Arts of Western Africa

Mary Jo Arnoldi.

in African Studies

P ublished online October 2013 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 17496 words.

West African arts include many of the most outstanding works from the continent and in the world. Home to both large empires and nomadic groups, this region has produced cultures that have...

Asante and the Akan and Mossi States

Pashington Obeng.

in African Studies

P ublished online March 2015 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 16148 words.

Studies of the Asante, Akan, and Mossi show the importance of migration, language, identity, polity, trade, and state expansion. Earlier works focused exclusively on either the Akan and the...

Aston, Prof. Peter George

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Music. 343 words.

DPhil

Born 5 Oct. 1938; s of late George William Aston and Elizabeth Oliver Aston (née Smith); m 1960, Elaine Veronica Neale; one s; died 13 Sept. 2013

Prof...

Athelstan-Johnson, Wilfrid

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music; Military History; Warfare and Defence. 103 words.

CMG 1922; MVO 1906

Born 24 Sept. 1876; died 5 June 1939

Athol Fugard

Marianne McDonald.

in African Studies

P ublished online May 2016 .

Article. Subjects: African History; African Languages; African Music; African Philosophy; African Studies. 12661 words.

Since the 1950s, the searing plays of South African playwright Athol Fugard (born 1932 in Middelburg, South Africa) have traced the history of his nation and its people. Known as the...

Austin, John (b. 1752, d. before 1838), music stenographer and inventor of a power-loom

Page Life.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Engineering and Technology; Education; Music Education and Pedagogy. 567 words.

Austin, John (b. 1752, d. before 1838), music stenographer and inventor of a power-loom, was born at Craigton, near Glasgow, on 17 April 1752, the son of the gardener to John Baird,...

Baines, Anthony Cuthbert

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Music; Military History; Warfare and Defence. 177 words.

DLitt; FBA 1980

Born 6 Oct. 1912; s of Cuthbert Edward Baines and Margaret Clemency Lane Poole; m 1960, Patricia Margaret Stammers; died 3 Feb. 1997...

Balfour of Inchrye

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Genealogy, Heraldry, Names, and Honours; Literature; Publishing; Music; Business Finance. 151 words.

Born 21 Dec. 1924; s of 1st Baron Balfour of Inchrye, PC, MC and Diana Blanche (d 1982), d of Sir Robert Grenville Harvey, 2nd Bt; ...