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About Institutions, Mainly, but not Exclusively, Political

Jean Blondel.

in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions

June 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Political Institutions; Comparative Politics. 6353 words.

This article discusses the concept of institution by examining the components of an institution and the way in which institutionalization can increase or decrease. It considers the place to...

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Abstract and Concrete Review in the United States

Alec Stone Sweet and Martin Shapiro.

in On Law, Politics, and Judicialization

August 2002; p ublished online November 2003 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 13288 words.

The diffusion of constitutional judicial review over the past half-century has resulted in the emergence of two dominant ‘models’ of review, the American and the European. The European...

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The Academic Normalization of International Relations at Oxford, 1920–2012: Structures Transcended*

Martin Ceadel.

in Forging a Discipline

February 2014; p ublished online May 2014 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 9003 words.

The chapter traces the occasionally faltering rise of International Relations (IR) at Oxford, from its origins as a Philosophy, Politics, and Economics (PPE) option taught by...

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Academic Regionalism and the Study of Human Genetic Variation in a Transnational Context

Shirley Sun.

in Reconsidering Race

June 2018; p ublished online May 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Political Theory; Comparative Politics. 6010 words.

This chapter discusses academic regionalism and racialization of ethnicity in Asia. Geneticists from China, Japan, and South Korea were interviewed about Asianism and the racialization of...

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The academic world of French policy studies: training, teaching and researching

Patrick Hassenteufel and Patrick Le Galès.

in Policy Analysis in France

January 2018; p ublished online September 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 8676 words.

This chapter provides an analysis of the different contributions of French Universities (and other academic institutions, especially the “Instituts d’Études Politiques”) to the teaching of...

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Academics and public policy

Daniel Cohn.

in Policy Analysis in Canada

May 2018; p ublished online January 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 11332 words.

Academic researchers are important contributors to the public policy process in Canada and other countries. However, they generally do not contribute directly. First their work tends to...

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Acceleration of History, Political Instabilities, and Media Change

Auksė Balčytienė.

in Media and Politics in New Democracies

October 2015; p ublished online November 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 5797 words.

This chapter provides a critical interpretation of political and social transition in post-communist Europe. It mostly looks at media transformations and argues that change goes deeper than...

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Accelerator or Brake?

Maurizio Ferrera.

in The Uses of Social Investment

June 2017; p ublished online July 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 3530 words.

Reorienting the welfare state towards social investment constitutes a complex and multidimensional challenge of policy recalibration and raises daunting political problems. The chapter...

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The Acceptance of Party Unity in Parliamentary Democracies

David M. Willumsen.

September 2017; p ublished online August 2017 .

Book. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 192 pages.

The central argument of this book is that voting unity in European legislatures is not primarily the result of the ‘disciplining’ power of the leadership of parliamentary parties, but...

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The Acceptance of Party Unity in Sweden, 1985 to 2010

David M. Willumsen.

in The Acceptance of Party Unity in Parliamentary Democracies

September 2017; p ublished online August 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 11543 words.

Analysing six waves of parliamentary surveys in Sweden, this chapter discusses the variation in the extent to which MPs have a reason to vote against their party based on policy preferences...

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Access to Services in a Patronage Democracy

Jennifer Bussell.

in Clients and Constituents

August 2019; p ublished online May 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics; International Relations. 11958 words.

This chapter presents a discussion of service provision in India, to set the context for an analysis of distributive politics and, in particular, constituency service, in a patronage...

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Accountability across Elections

Sona N. Golder, Ignacio Lago, André Blais, Elisabeth Gidengil and Thomas Gschwend.

in Multi-Level Electoral Politics

October 2017; p ublished online October 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative Politics. 9625 words.

How do voters use elections as mechanisms of accountability in the multi-level systems in France, Germany, and Spain? The extent to which the voters attribute blame or credit for economic...

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Accountability and Ambiguity

Johan P. Olsen.

in The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability

May 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Public Administration. 7706 words.

Ambiguity is intrinsic to life. Yet, mainstream accountability theory reduces its area of application by not taking ambiguity seriously. The literature treats too many aspects as exogenous...

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Accountability and Blame–Avoidance

Christopher Hood.

in The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability

May 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Public Administration. 6823 words.

This chapter advances three claims. First, it argues that the concepts of accountability and blame-avoidance have much in common and can be understood as mirror-image concepts for the...

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Accountability and Citizen Participation

Bodil Damgaard and Jenny M. Lewis.

in The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability

May 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Political Behaviour. 6912 words.

This chapter provides an analytical framework aimed at measuring citizen participation in public accountability processes beyond the fundamental mechanism of parliamentary elections. The...

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Accountability and Constitutional Law

Carol Harlow.

in The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability

May 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics. 7133 words.

This chapter argues that, although accountability is a term well understood in constitutional law, it is not a central term of art within the discipline. It explores the public law origins...

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Accountability and Multi-Level Governance

Yannis Papadopoulos.

in The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability

May 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Public Administration; Comparative Politics. 7457 words.

This chapter first presents the major characteristics of multi-level governance and gives examples thereof from the European and the transnational level. It then identifies a number of...

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Accountability and New Public Management

Per Lægreid.

in The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability

May 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Public Administration. 6504 words.

This chapter links the rise of public accountability to the wave of New Public Management (NPM) reforms. It argues that the relationship between increased managerial accountability and...

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Accountability and Principal–Agent Theory

Sean Gailmard.

in The Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability

May 2014; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Public Administration. 7861 words.

Principal-agent theory encapsulates a tradition of rational choice modeling in which some actor(s)—the principal(s)—uses whatever actions are available to provide incentives for some other...

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Accountability and Responsibility

Robert Gregory.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Public Administration; Comparative Politics. 7505 words.

Accountability and responsibility are related ideas that are central to political, constitutional, and institutional arrangements in Western liberal democracies. However, political elites...

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