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Babo's law

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

The vapour pressure of a liquid is decreased when a solute is added, the amount of the decrease being proportional to the amount of solute dissolved. The law was discovered in 1847 by the...

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back e.m.f.

Overview page. Subjects: Physics — Chemistry.

An electromotive force that opposes the main current flow in a circuit. For example, in an electric cell, polarization causes a back e.m.f. to be set up by chemical means.

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balance

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

An accurate weighing device. The simple beam balance consists of two pans suspended from a centrally pivoted beam. Known masses are placed on one pan and the substance or body to be weighed...

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barn

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

A unit of area sometimes used to measure cross sections in nuclear interactions involving incident particles. It is equal to 10−28 square metre. The name comes from the phrase ‘side of a...

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base unit

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

A unit that is defined arbitrarily rather than being defined by simple combinations of other units. For example, the ampere is a base unit in the SI system defined in terms of the force...

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basic-oxygen process

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

A high-speed method of making high-grade steel. It originated in the Linz-Donawitz (L-D) process. Molten pig iron and scrap are charged into a tilting furnace, similar to the Bessemer...

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Beckmann thermometer

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

A thermometer for measuring small changes of temperature (see illustration). It consists of a mercury-in-glass thermometer with a scale covering only 5 or 6°C calibrated in hundredths of a...

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Bénard cell

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

A structure associated with a layer of liquid that is confined by two horizontal parallel plates, in which the lateral dimensions are much larger than the width of the layer. Before heating...

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berkelium

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

Symbol Bk. A radioactive metallic transuranic element belonging to the actinoids; a.n. 97; mass number of the most stable isotope 247 (half-life 1.4 × 103 years); r.d. (calculated) 14....

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Bessemer process

Overview page. Subjects: Chemistry — Physics.

A process for converting pig iron from a blast furnace into steel. The molten pig iron is loaded into a refractory-lined tilting furnace (Bessemer converter) at about 1250°C. Air is blown...

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