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Babylon

Victor Avigdor Hurowitz.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 756 words.

A Mesopotamian city situated slightly southwest of the convergence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Babylon (Babel in Hebrew) is

Baillet, Maurice

Jacques Briend.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 613 words.

Born in Bordeaux, France, on 25 March 1923, Maurice Baillet studied there, where he obtained a Licence-ès-Lettres. He continued

Bar Kokhba Revolt

Aharon Oppenheimer.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 2874 words.

Both the high point of the Jewish revolutionary movement against Roman rule in Erets Yisra᾽el and its breaking point, the

Bar Kokhba, Shim῾on

Aharon Oppenheimer.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 2829 words.

leader of the second major Jewish revolt against Rome in the province of Judea, during the years 132–135 ce.

Barkhi Nafshi

David Rolph Seely.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 1130 words.

The texts entitled Barkhi Nafshi consist of five collections of fragments numbered 4Q434–438. These fragments contain a collection of hymns

Barthélemy, Dominique

Jacques Briend.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 592 words.

on 16 May 1921. He entered the Dominican order in 1939, studying first in Paris and then in

Basketry

Kathryn Bernick.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 1267 words.

has survived the ravages of time in the Dead Sea region due to the arid climate. Fragments of baskets and

Baths and Baptism

Hermann Lichtenberger.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 3249 words.

can only be understood and discussed in relationship to the system of purity and impurity, but it is not the

Beatitudes

Benedict T. Viviano.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 1604 words.

A set of related Hebrew fragments, one of which contains five beatitudes, was found in Cave 4 at Qumran; it

Ben Galgula, Yeshu῾a

Aharon Oppenheimer.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 686 words.

According to three letters found at Wadi Murabba῾at, a letter from Beit-Mashiko to Yeshu῾a ben Galgula (Mur 42) and two

Ben Sira, Book of

Benjamin G. Wright.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 1516 words.

The Wisdom of Yeshua (Jesus), Ben Sira in Hebrew (Sirach in Greek and Ecclesiasticus in Latin), is part of

Berakhot

Bilha Nitzan.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 1445 words.

The Hebrew work Berakhot has been preserved in Cave 4 at Qumran in five manuscripts, known as Berakhota–e (4Q286–290),

Biblical Chronology

G. Wilhelm Nebe.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 809 words.

is the name given to a papyrus manuscript of twelve or thirteen preserved fragments written in a late Hasmonean–early Herodian

Bibliothèque Nationale De France

Jacques Briend.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 266 words.

Founded in 1368 by King Charles V, the Bibliothèque Royale became the Bibliothèque Nationale during the French Revolution in

Blessings and Curses

Bilha Nitzan.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 4465 words.

Numerous blessings and curses appear in the Qumran corpus. The source of their power is the deity; hence, these benedictions

Boethusians

Raymond Harari.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 2004 words.

The Boethusians were a sect of Jews who thrived in the late Second Temple period and who differed greatly from

Bone Artifacts

Ann E. Killebrew.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 752 words.

In the Judean Desert sites dating to the Roman period, artifacts fashioned out of bone are rare. Most of these

Buqeia

Joseph Patrich.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 1131 words.

The Hyrcania Valley, Buqeia, is a geological syncline at the northeastern edge of the Judean Desert above the fault escarpment

Cairo Genizah

Stefan C. Reif.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 3288 words.

The title Cairo Genizah is used to describe both the source and the contents of a collection of about 220,000

Calendars and Mishmarot

Shemaryahu Talmon.

in Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

March 2000; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Religious Studies; Biblical Studies; Ancient History (Non-Classical, to 500 CE). 7703 words.

The momentous importance that attaches to “proper chronology” and Temple watches (mishmarot) in the conceptual world of the