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Panskoye I

Vladimir F. Stolba.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online January 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Historical Geography; Ancient Greek History; Greek and Roman Archaeology; Religion in the Ancient World. 7289 words.

Panskoye I is one of the most prominent and best-studied settlements in the rural territory of Chersonesus on the Tarkhankut Peninsula (north-western Crimea). Founded in the late 5th...

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proletarii

Andrew Lintott.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 295 words.

Proletarii, as opposed to assidui, were the citizens of Rome too poor to contribute anything to the state except their children (proles). They seem to have been equated with the capite censi as...

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purple

Ludwig Alfred Moritz.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 252 words.

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quaestor

Ernst Badian and Tony Honoré.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 662 words.

Quaestores parricidii (see parricidium) are said to have been appointed by the kings. Under the republic there were two, who prosecuted some capital cases before the people. They fade from our record...

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reciprocity, Greek

Gilbert Highet.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Classical Philosophy. 660 words.

The idea that giving goods or rendering services imposed upon the recipient a moral obligation to respond pervaded Greek thought from its earliest documented history. Linguistically, the idea is most...

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repetundae

Ernst Badian and Andrew Lintott.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 964 words.

Repetundae (pecuniae), (money) to be recovered. The quaestio de repetundis (see quaestiones) was a court established to secure compensation for the illegal acquisition of money or property by Romans...

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salarium

Fergus Graham Burtholme Millar and Graham Burton.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 254 words.

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senate, regal and republican period

Arnaldo Momigliano and Tim Cornell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Roman History; Greek and Roman Law. 1591 words.

In the time of the *Gracchi (c.133–121 bce) the senate was a body of around 300 wealthy men of aristocratic birth, most of them ex-magistrates. Although the sources tend to assume that this state of...

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symmoria

Friedrich M. Heichelheim and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 274 words.

Symmoria (‘partnership’), in Athens a group of men liable for payment of the tax called *eisphora or for the *liturgy of the *trierarchy. In 378/7 bce all payers of eisphora were organized in...

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tamiai

D. M. MacDowell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Religion in the Ancient World. 300 words.

Tamiai means ‘treasurers’. In Athens the most important officials with this title were the treasurers of Athena. They were ten in number, appointed annually by lot, one from each of the ten *phylai....

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thētes

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 205 words.

Thētes, hired labourers, the lowest class of free men in a Greek state. At Athens, after *Solon, the lowest of the four property classes, said (perhaps by false analogy with *pentakosiomedimnoi) to...

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Thoricus

John Ellis Jones.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Historical Geography; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 205 words.

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tribute lists, Athenian

Malcolm F. McGregor and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Greek History. 419 words.

Tribute lists (Athenian), records of the aparchai (first-fruits; pl. of *aparchē) of one-sixtieth given as an offering to *Athena from the tribute paid by the members of the *Delian League after the...

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tributum

Graham Burton.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 547 words.

Tributum was a direct tax paid by individuals to the Roman state. Until 167 bce citizens of Rome were liable to pay a tributum which was in principle an extraordinary (in contrast to the regular...

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villa

David J. Mattingly.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Archaeology. 567 words.

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wealth, Roman attitudes towards

Gloria Vivenza and Neville Morley.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online November 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Ancient Roman History. 4429 words.

Roman attitudes to wealth were complex and sometimes ambivalent. Wealth was an essential basis for political and social life, but also a topic of extensive debate, which focused on the...

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zeugitai

Arnold Wycombe Gomme, Theodore John Cadoux and P. J. Rhodes.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; Greek and Roman Law. 188 words.

Zeugitai (from zeugos, ‘yoke’), at Athens, Solon's third property class, said (perhaps by false analogy with *pentakosiomedimnoi) to comprise men whose land yielded between 200 and 300 med...

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