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Loomis, Elias

James Rodger Fleming.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Science and Mathematics; Education; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1117 words.

Loomis, Elias (07 August 1811–15 August 1889), educator, astronomer, and meteorologist, was born in Willington, Connecticut, the son of Hubbel Loomis, a Baptist minister, and Jerusha Burt....

Lubbock, Sir John William, third baronet (1803–1865), astronomer and banker

Timothy L. Alborn.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Banking; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2859 words.

Lubbock, Sir John William, third baronet (1803–1865), astronomer and banker, was born on 26 March 1803 in Duke Street, Westminster, London. He was the only child of Sir John William...

Lynn, George, the elder (1676–1742), astronomer and antiquary

A. M. Clerke.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 457 words.

Lynn, George, the elder (1676–1742), astronomer and antiquary, was born at Southwick House, near Oundle, Northamptonshire, the second son of George Lynn (1647/8–1682), lord of the manor of...

Mackenzie, James Stuart (1719–1800), politician and astronomer

David Gavine.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 687 words.

Mackenzie, James Stuart (1719–1800), politician and astronomer, was born on 23 February 1719, the younger son in the family of two sons and four daughters of James Stuart, second earl of...

Manned Orbital Laboratory

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics — Warfare and Defence.

(MOL)

A joint NASA and US Air Force programme in the 1960s that failed to meet its objectives. The programme was initiated to test the long-term residence of astronauts in space...

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McClean, Frank (1837–1904), astronomer and educational benefactor

H. P. Hollis.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1181 words.

McClean, Frank (1837–1904), astronomer and educational benefactor, was born at Glasgow on 13 November 1837, the only son of the six children of John Robinson McClean MP FRS FRAS...

McDonnell

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Astronomy and Astrophysics.

An aircraft manufacturer, now merged with Boeing in 1997, that began as the McDonnell Aircraft Company in Lambert Field, Missouri, in 1939. The company has developed into a major...

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McVittie, George Cunliffe (1904–1988), astronomer and cryptanalyst

Ralph Erskine.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Warfare and Defence; Numerical and Computational Mathematics; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1156 words.

McVittie, George Cunliffe (1904–1988), astronomer and cryptanalyst, was born on 5 June 1904 in Smyrna, Turkey, the eldest of three children (two sons and a daughter) of Francis Skinner...

Mitchel, Ormsby Macknight

Philip S. Shoemaker.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics; Education. 1505 words.

Mitchel, Ormsby Macknight (28 July 1809–30 October 1862), astronomer and advocate of science, was born in Morganfield, Kentucky, the son of John Mitchel and Elizabeth McAllister, farmers....

Mitchell, Maria

Sally Gregory Kohlstedt.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics; Education. 1895 words.

Mitchell, Maria (01 August 1818–28 June 1889), astronomer and teacher, was born on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, the daughter of William Mitchell, a banker and astronomer, and Lydia...

Molyneux, Samuel (1689–1728), astronomer and politician

A. M. Clerke.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 835 words.

Molyneux, Samuel (1689–1728), astronomer and politician, born at Chester on 18 July 1689, was the third but only surviving child of the experimental philosopher William Molyneux (1656–1698)...

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Astronomy and Astrophysics.

(NACA)

A predecessor of NASA. It was established in 1915 to ‘supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of flight, with a view to their practical solutions’. By...

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near real time

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics — Warfare and Defence.

A designation that pertains to the timeliness of data or information that has been delayed by the time required for electronic communication and automatic data processing. This implies that...

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Newall, Hugh Frank (1857–1944), astrophysicist and educational benefactor

E. A. Milne.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture. 1881 words.

Newall, Hugh Frank (1857–1944), astrophysicist and educational benefactor, was born at Ferndene, near Gateshead, on 21 June 1857, the youngest of six children of Robert Stirling Newall...

Newcomb, Simon

Albert E. Moyer.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics; Economics. 1670 words.

Newcomb, Simon (12 March 1835–11 July 1909), mathematical astronomer and political economist, was born in Wallace, Nova Scotia, the son of John Burton Newcomb, an itinerant schoolteacher,...

Nichol, John Pringle (1804–1859), astronomer and political economist

John Burnett.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics; Economics; Political Economy. 1350 words.

Nichol, John Pringle (1804–1859), astronomer and political economist, was the eldest of seven children of John Nichol, a farmer from Northumberland, and Jane Forbes of Ellon, Aberdeenshire....

parachute

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Any canopied device used to slow down descent from a high altitude. NASA's Mercury project craft used one 19-m parachute and a back-up to land capsules in the Atlantic Ocean, while the Apol...

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Parker, George, second earl of Macclesfield (c. 1697–1764), astronomer and politician

A. M. Clerke.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1139 words.

Parker, George, second earl of Macclesfield (c. 1697–1764), astronomer and politician, was the only son of Thomas Parker, first earl of Macclesfield (1667–1732), and his wife and cousin...

payload

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — Astronomy and Astrophysics.

An item on a spacecraft that is not part of the vehicle's structure or its operating systems and subsystems. Payloads include satellites to be deployed, as well as materials and instruments...

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Penrose, Francis Cranmer (1817–1903), architect, classical archaeologist, and astronomer

Paul Waterhouse.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Archaeology; Architecture; Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2361 words.

Penrose, Francis Cranmer (1817–1903), architect, classical archaeologist, and astronomer, was born on 29 October 1817 at Bracebridge, near Lincoln, the youngest son of the Revd John Penrose...