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An American Conundrum: Race, Sociology, And The African American Road To Citizenship

Lawrence D. Bobo.

in The Oxford Handbook of African American Citizenship, 1865-Present

May 2012; p ublished online September 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; US Politics; Politics and Law. 21427 words.

The question of race lies at the heart of one of the great debates of American ideas and scholarly discourse. At one end of this debate we can find those who argue for the American Liberal...

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American Farm Bureau Federation

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 632 words.

In the history of institution building in American agriculture, the most successful example of a general-interest farm organization is the

American Indian Movement

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 572 words.

Since its founding in 1968 by a group of Anishinabe Indians in Minneapolis, the American Indian Movement (AIM) has sought

American Liberty League

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 553 words.

Founded in August 1934, the American Liberty League was for a time at the forefront of the conservative attack

Amistad Case

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 360 words.

In 1839, in violation of Spanish law, Spanish slave traders transported over 40 enslaved Africans to Cuba. Here

The Amorphous Relationship between Congress and the Courts

Michael A. Bailey, Forrest Maltzman and Charles R. Shipan.

in The Oxford Handbook of the American Congress

March 2011; p ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; US Politics; Politics and Law. 11798 words.

The relationship between Congress and the judiciary is a complex one that is poorly defined or understood. This ambiguity in the relationship is the result of the failure of the...

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The Analysis of Courts in the Economic Analysis of Law

Lewis A. Kornhauser.

in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics

August 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Politics and Law; Political Economy. 5638 words.

Many analyses of courts within the economic analysis of law are indistinguishable from those produced by positive political theorists; they consider how judges control, exploit, or resolve...

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Analyzing Constitutions

Peter M. Shane.

in The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions

June 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Politics and Law; Comparative Politics. 11161 words.

This article looks at constitutions. The status and function of constitutions are discussed in the first section of the chapter. It then discusses implementing key founding bargains and...

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Anarchism

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 447 words.

Anarchist rejection of centralized government and preference for direct democracy and voluntary associations are deeply rooted in the American historical

Andrews, Fannie Fern Phillips

Linda G. Ford.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law; Education. 773 words.

Andrews, Fannie Fern Phillips (25 September 1867–23 January 1950), pacifist and educational reformer, was born in Margaretville, Nova Scotia, the daughter of William Wallace Phillips, a...

Animal Work

Jocelyne Porcher.

in The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies

March 2017; p ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Political Theory; Politics and Law. 8397 words.

Although the presence of animals in our lives seems natural, it is not; it depends on work. But we don’t know what work means for a dog, a horse, or a cow. This chapter proposes a concept...

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Animals as Legal Subjects

Paul Waldau.

in The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies

March 2017; p ublished online August 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Political Theory; Politics and Law. 10440 words.

This chapter contrasts the dominant sense of the phrase “animals as legal subjects,” which minimizes fundamental protections for nonhuman animals, with alternative senses of the same phrase...

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Animals as Living Property

David Favre.

in The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies

March 2017; p ublished online February 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Political Theory; Politics and Law. 7870 words.

For all recorded history domestic animals have been considered objects within the legal system, classified as personal property, the primary focus being on what an owner can do with...

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Animals as Scientific Objects

Mike Michael.

in The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies

March 2017; p ublished online June 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics and Law; Political Theory. 8218 words.

The chapter addresses the topic of animals as scientific objects by drawing on recent literature that emphasizes the heterogeneous construction—or eventuation—of the object. As such, the...

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Animals as Sentient Commodities

Rhoda Wilkie.

in The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies

March 2017; p ublished online August 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Political Theory; Politics and Law. 11376 words.

A discrepancy exists between the legal and perceived status of livestock. Legally, food animals are property, but their thing-like status is unstable and does not determine how they are...

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Animals in Religion

Stephen R. L. Clark.

in The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies

March 2017; p ublished online December 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Political Theory; Politics and Law. 9631 words.

Both “animals” and “religion” are contentious concepts, with many possible meanings and associations. This chapter takes animals to be eukaryotes distinct from protists, plants and fungi,...

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Anthony, Susan B.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 581 words.

(1820–1906), women’s rights activist. Born in Adams, Massachusetts, Susan Brownell Anthony was influenced by her

Anti-Communism

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 722 words.

Anti-Communism was one of the most significant forces in twentieth-century American politics. Although its enemies saw anti- Communism as dictating

Anti-Federalists

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 596 words.

The Anti-Federalists opposed ratification of the Constitution as it was written in 1787. They felt the Constitution transferred too

Anti-Masonic Party

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

January 2012; p ublished online January 2013 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law. 330 words.

The Anti-Masonic Party arose in New York in response to the 1826 disappearance of William Morgan, a Mason. His