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The Politics of Language Education in Africa

Russell H. Kaschula and Michael M. Kretzer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online March 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Public Administration; Political Institutions; Politics and Law; International Relations. 8516 words.

Language policies in sub-Saharan African nations emerge out of specific political, historical, socioeconomic, and linguistic conditions. Education plays a crucial role for all spheres of...

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Referendums

Matthew Qvortrup.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 253 words.

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics. Please check back later for the full article.

Referendum...

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Religious Regulation in India

Kristina M. Teater and Laura Dudley Jenkins.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 9696 words.

Freedom of religion is a constitutional right in India, but this religiously diverse democracy regulates religion in several ways, including enforcing religious personal laws, regulating...

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Religious Regulation in the United States

Barbara A. McGraw and James T. Richardson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 13383 words.

Although the United States Constitution presumably was designed to avoid “regulation” of religion, there is an interplay between religious individuals and private organizations, on the one...

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Repression

Abby Peterson and Mattias Wahlström.

in The Oxford Handbook of Social Movements

November 2015; p ublished online August 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 8162 words.

Social movement protest and repression are inextricably joined. In this chapter we make a case for conceptualizing repression as the governance of domestic dissent. Repression or policing...

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The Role of Reparations in the Transition from Violence to Peace

Peter J. Dixon.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online July 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 13314 words.

Reparations are among the most tangible, victim-centric, and personal of processes in the transition from violence to peace, symbolizing the recognition that an individual has been harmed...

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The Rule of Law and Courts in Democratizing Regimes

Rebecca Bill Chavez.

in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics

August 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 7850 words.

The rule of law is a broad concept that encompasses many areas including judicial autonomy, access to justice, human rights, and property rights. It entails the equality of all citizens...

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Sex Reclassification for Trans and Gender Nonconforming People: From the Medicalized Body to the Privatized Self

Ido Katri.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online July 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Public Administration; Politics and Law; Political Theory. 10369 words.

Sex reclassification is a core issue of gender nonconforming legal engagements. Access to proper identification documents for trans and nonbinary people relates to lower levels of exposure...

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The Silences in the Rules That Regulate Women during Times of Armed Conflict

Judith Gardam.

in The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Conflict

February 2018; p ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 6096 words.

This chapter describes the history of the law of armed conflict and its relevance to women. The law of armed conflict has not been heavily scrutinized by feminists but its provisions offer...

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The State and Gender Equality

Julia S. O'Connor.

in The Oxford Handbook of Transformations of the State

June 2015; p ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 8191 words.

This chapter utilizes labor market change, in particular the objective of increasing female labor market participation and change in gender-equality decision-making machinery, to provide...

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Theoretical Perspectives on Subnational Public Policy and LGBT Law

Jason Pierceson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online May 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 6751 words.

Subnational policymaking is central to LGBT politics and law, in contrast to other arenas of policymaking for marginalized groups. With barriers to national policymaking in Congress and in...

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Transitional Justice During Armed Conflict

Cyanne E. Loyle.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 8453 words.

Armed conflict is ultimately about the violent confrontation between two or more groups; however, there is a range of behaviors, both violent and nonviolent, pursued by governments and...

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Violent and Criminal Non-State Actors

Benedetta Berti.

in The Oxford Handbook of Governance and Limited Statehood

March 2018; p ublished online April 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Comparative Politics; Political Theory; Politics and Law. 8948 words.

This chapter takes stock of the main scholarly and policy debates pertaining to the rise of violent and criminal governors. First, it delves into the reasons that drive these actors towards...

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War Crimes Tribunals

Gary J. Bass.

in The Oxford Handbook of Law and Politics

August 2008; p ublished online September 2009 .

Article. Subjects: Politics; International Relations; Comparative Politics; Politics and Law. 7623 words.

This article reviews the state of the field in three crucial issues about war crimes tribunals: victors' justice, outlawing war, and the trade-off between peace and justice. In all three,...

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