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Althea Gibson

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — United States History.

(b. 25 August 1927; d. 28 September 2003), tennis player.

Althea Gibson was the first person to break the color barrier in tennis. Gibson’s integration of tennis in 1950 occurred...

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basketball

Overview page. Subjects: United States History — Sport and Leisure.

James Naismith, an instructor at the YMCA Training School at Springfield College in Massachusetts, invented basketball in 1891 as an indoor winter game. The object was to throw a soccer ...

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Edward Franklin Frazier

Overview page. Subjects: Sociology — United States History.

(1894–1962)

A member of the Chicago School of Sociology, former President of the American Sociological Society, and author of numerous studies of black family life in urban...

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Florence Griffith-Joyner

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — United States History.

(b. 21 December 1959; d. 21 September 1998), athlete, businesswoman.

Florence Griffith Joyner, or “Flo-Jo,” lived her life with all the razzle and dazzle appropriate for a...

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football

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — United States History.

Versions of football were played in late seventeenth-century Massachusetts. In the early 1800s, college students representing their classes played the “football rush”. Rutgers beat...

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Wilma Glodean Rudolph

Overview page. Subjects: Sport and Leisure — United States History.

(b. 23 June 1940; d. 12 November 1994), Olympic gold medalist.

At the 1960 Rome Olympics, Rudolph made her mark in track when she became the first American woman ever ...

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youth culture

Overview page. Subjects: United States History — Sociology.

Strictly speaking a subculture, the subject of an influential debate between (mainly) functionalist writers and their critics. Youth cultures are explained either by factors in the...

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