## Apollonius of Perga

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Science and Mathematics.

(*c.*262 bc–*c.*190 bc) Greek mathematician

Apollonius moved from his birthplace Perga (now in Turkey) to study in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, possibly under pupils of Euclid....

## arboriculture

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Science and Mathematics.

Tree cultivation. In the first millennium bc there was a remarkable expansion of fruit‐tree cultivation around the Mediterranean. The productivity of agriculture was increased because trees...

## Archimedes

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Science and Mathematics.

(*c.* 287–212 bc),

Greek mathematician and inventor, of Syracuse. He is famous for his discovery of Archimedes' principle, a law stating that a body totally or partially immersed in...

## Aristarchus of Samos

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics — Classical Studies.

(*c.*320 bc–*c.*250 bc) Greek astronomer

Little is known of the life of Aristarchus, but Archimedes reported that Aristarchus had proposed that, while the Sun and the fixed stars are...

## Callippus

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics — Classical Studies.

(*c.*370–*c.*300 bc)

Greek astronomer and mathematician. He modified Eudoxus' scheme of Earth-centred spheres, adding extra ones for the Sun, Moon, and some of the planets, bringing...

## Conon

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics — Classical Studies.

Of Samos (first half of 3rd cent. bc), mathematician and astronomer. After observing star‐risings and weather phenomena in Italy and Sicily, he became famous by his identification (*c.*245...

## constellation

Overview page. Subjects: Astronomy and Astrophysics — Classical Studies.

Any of the 88 areas into which the celestial sphere is divided for the purposes of identifying objects, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922 (see Table 3, Appendix)....

## Diophantus

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Mathematics.

Of Alexandria (date uncertain, between 150 bc and ad 280), mathematician, wrote an algebraic work on indeterminate equations, Arithmētika, in thirteen books, of which six survive in Greek...

## Eratosthenes

Overview page. Subjects: Classical Studies — Science and Mathematics.

(*c*.276–*c*.194 bc)

Greekwriter on many subjects, born in modern Libya. He made the first known calculation of the Earth's circumference that was based on a scientifically sound...

## Eudoxus of Cnidus

Overview page. Subjects: Science and Mathematics — Classical Studies.

(*c*.408–*c.*355 bc)

Greek pupil of Plato's, and outstanding geometer and cosmologist. Eudoxus invented a general theory of proportion able to handle incommensurables, also a...