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Aretas

J. F. Healey.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 371 words.

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Attalus I, 269–197 BCE

R. M. Errington.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 426 words.

Attalus I (269–197 bce), ruler of *Pergamum (241–197), the first Pergamene to use the royal title. Cousin and adopted son of *Eumenes (1) I, Attalus expanded and consolidated his kingdom through...

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Attalus II, 220–138 BCE

R. M. Errington.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 223 words.

Attalus II (220–138 bce), king of *Pergamum (158–138), second son of *Attalus I, called ‘Philadelphus’ (‘Brother-loving’). Attalus served under his brother *Eumenes (2) II as loyal general against...

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Carthage, history

William Nassau Weech, Brian Herbert Warmington and R. J. A. Wilson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 1607 words.

Carthage (Qrtḥdšt ( = ‘New Town’); Καρχήδων; Carthago), a *Phoenician colony and later a major Roman city on the coast of NE Tunisia.According to tradition (Timaeus, FGrH 566 fr. 60) Carthage was...

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Chaeremon (2) , of Alexandria (1), Greek author, 1st cent. ce

Christopher Pelling.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Literature; Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 94 words.

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Cleopatra VII, 69–30 BCE

Dorothy J. Thompson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Ancient Roman History. 570 words.

Cleopatra VII (69–30 bce), the final and best known of the Ptolemies, was daughter of *Ptolemy (1) XII (Auletes). On the latter's death in 51 she became queen, alone at first and subsequently with...

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Ctesias

Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 1875 words.

Ctesias of Cnidus was a doctor at the court of Artaxerxes II and the author of a history of Persia and other works. He seems to have studied, and possibly practised, medicine at Cnidus. The exact...

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Egypt, Ptolemaic

Dorothy J. Thompson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 968 words.

In the period from the death of Alexander (3) the Great in 323 bce until Octavian's conquest and the death of *Cleopatra VII in 30 bce the Egyptian throne was held by Macedonians, and from...

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Evagoras , c. 435–374/373 bce

Donald Ernest Wilson Wormell and Simon Hornblower.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Middle Eastern History. 423 words.

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Fratarakā, Sub-Seleucid Dynasty in Persis

Josef Wiesehöfer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Ancient Greek History; Greek and Roman Archaeology; Middle Eastern History. 1906 words.

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