in The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern European History, 1350-1750
July 2015; p ublished online November 2014 .
Article. Subjects: History; Early Modern History (1500 to 1700); European History; Maritime History. 12610 words.
From unpromising starting points in Atlantic-side Europe, during a period of plague and cold, in a region that was poor and, by comparison with civilizations of maritime Asia, technically...
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