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Regional and National History x Middle Eastern History x Modern History (1700 to 1945) x clear all

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The Consumer’s Decade

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 22356 words.

Chapter 3 describes the impact of increasing oil revenues of petrostates in the Middle East, as well as the difficulties OPEC had in succeeding during the first negotiations with the oil...

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The Energy Crisis

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 18554 words.

Chapter 4 describes the rapid shift from a “consumer” to a “producer” market at the end of the 1960s. This shift was characterized by the radicalization of the political and social climate...

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Epilogue

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 15331 words.

The Epilogue describes the parallel crisis of the petrostates and of OPEC, focusing on two episodes that clearly demonstrated this crisis at the end of the 1980s. The first was the attack...

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The Failed Cartel

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 29550 words.

Chapter 7 describes the rise of non-OPEC oil production, especially in the UK, Norway, and Mexico, and the start of the price-slump at the beginning of the 1980s, also due to increased...

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Fifty-Fifty

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 17877 words.

Chapter 1 describes the negotiations and the reasons for the advent of the fifty-fifty oil profit sharing model in Venezuela in 1948, and then its application to the Middle East after the...

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Fiscal Crisis and Structural Change in the Late Ottoman Economy

Murat Birdal.

in The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Middle-Eastern and North African History

P ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 7083 words.

This chapter examines institutional change in the Ottoman economy with a focus on its financial crises and subsequent reform attempts. Traditional fiscal institutions functioned well until...

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Introduction

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 5345 words.

The Introduction deals with the place of sovereign landlords, in particular landlords that ruled over some of the most productive oil regions in the world, in the history of the twentieth...

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The Oil Revolution

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 17877 words.

Chapter 5 describes the OAPEC oil embargo and then explains the reasons for the “oil shock”, with its fourfold increase in the price of crude oil by December 1973. After the price increases...

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OPEC

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 22954 words.

In order to explain the creation of OPEC, Chapter 2 describes the spread of protests in the oil fields as well as the rise of nationalism in the Arab world, together with the radicalization...

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Prologue

Giuliano Garavini.

in The Rise and Fall of OPEC in the Twentieth Century

July 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Middle Eastern History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 20959 words.

The Prologue describes the rise of Anglo-American “petrocapital” after WWII and the formation of the “concessions system” in the Middle East in the 1920s and 1930s. The chapter concentrates...

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