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Regional and National History x Middle Eastern History x Historical and Diachronic Linguistics x clear all

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Akkadian

Stephanie Dalley.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 145 words.

(1) Term used until 1869 for the language now known as *Sumerian. (2) Term used since 1869 for the East Semitic language that is also known by its northern and southern dialects as Assyrian and...

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Aramaic

J. F. Healey.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 192 words.

Aramaic, a *Semitic language, was used in the ancient near east from early in the 1st millennium bce and through the Roman period. Originating in upper Mesopotamia, it is first known...

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cuneiform

Benjamin Fortson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online December 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 932 words.

Cuneiform denotes any of at least three writing systems of ancient Mesopotamia and the surrounding areas. It is characterized in its classical form by signs consisting of one or more...

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Eteocypriot

Philippa M. Steele.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 632 words.

Eteocypriot (or Eteocyprian) is a modern term referring to a group of inscriptions written in an unknown language of Iron Age Cyprus (attested 8th–4th centuriesbce). The name was coined by analogy...

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Old Persian language

Benjamin Fortson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 592 words.

Old Persian was the Iranian language spoken by the ruling class of the Achaemenid Empire, probably reflecting the Southwest Iranian dialect of Persis (see Persia). It is preserved in documents in a...

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Persian, Old

Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Josef Wiesehöfer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 202 words.

Old Persian (abbr. OP), an *Indo-European language of western Iran (first millennium bce). The identification of an administrative document written in OP among the texts in the Persepolis...

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Semitic

J. F. Healey.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Judaism and Jewish Studies; Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 136 words.

Semitic, a term derived from the Old Testament personal name Shem, refers to a middle eastern language group (used linguistically by A. L. Schlözer in 1781, though J. G. Eichhorn claimed priority)....

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Sumerian

Stephanie Dalley.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Historical and Diachronic Linguistics; Middle Eastern History. 79 words.

Sumerian is the earliest known language of ancient *Mesopotamia, written on clay and stone in *cuneiform script. Unrelated to other known languages, it is agglutinative and ergative....

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