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Aging, cellular senescence and cancer: epigenetic alterations and nuclear remodeling

John C. Lucchesi.

in Epigenetics, Nuclear Organization & Gene Function

January 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Biochemistry; Evolutionary Biology. 12940 words.

Epigenetic modifications correlated with aging and oncogenesis are changes in the pattern of DNA methylation and of histone modifications, and changes in the level of histone variants...

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Aging, cellular senescence and cancer: the role of genomic instability, cellular homeostasis and telomeres

John C. Lucchesi.

in Epigenetics, Nuclear Organization & Gene Function

January 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Biochemistry; Evolutionary Biology. 7790 words.

Aging hallmarks are causative factors of oncogenesis. Genomic instability results from the accumulation of errors that occur during DNA replication or from exposure to endogenous or...

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Allosteric theory

Jay F. Storz.

in Hemoglobin

November 2018; p ublished online December 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Biochemistry. 10150 words.

Chapter 3 provides a brief overview of allostery, the modulation of protein activity that is caused by an indirect interaction between structurally remote binding sites. In this mode of...

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Analysis of Short-term Selection Experiments: 1. Least-squares Approaches

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch.

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

July 2018; p ublished online September 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Biochemistry. 23432 words.

This chapter examines short-term (a few generations) selection response in the mean of a trait. Traditionally, such experiments are analyzed using least-squares (LS) approaches. While...

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Analysis of Short-term Selection Experiments: 2. Mixed-model and Bayesian Approaches

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch.

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

July 2018; p ublished online September 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Biochemistry. 25641 words.

When the full pedigree of individuals whose values (records) were used in the selection decisions during an experiment (or breeding program) is known, LS analysis can be replaced by mixed...

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Architectural organization of the genome

John C. Lucchesi.

in Epigenetics, Nuclear Organization & Gene Function

January 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Biochemistry; Evolutionary Biology. 9338 words.

In the nucleus, chromosomes occupy particular positions (territories) based on their size and gene content. Within each territory, chromosomes are subdivided into loops that contain mostly...

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Associative Effects: Competition, Social Interactions, Group and Kin Selection

Bruce Walsh and Michael Lynch.

in Evolution and Selection of Quantitative Traits

July 2018; p ublished online September 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Biochemistry. 37453 words.

The phenotypes of those individuals with which an focal individual interacts often influences the trait value in the focal individual. Maternal effects is a classic example of this...

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The basic mechanism of gene transcription

John C. Lucchesi.

in Epigenetics, Nuclear Organization & Gene Function

January 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Biochemistry; Evolutionary Biology. 9094 words.

Transcription is initiated by factors that interact with RNA polymerases and recruit them to specific sites, unwind the DNA molecules and allow the synthesis of RNA transcripts...

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The basic structure of chromatin

John C. Lucchesi.

in Epigenetics, Nuclear Organization & Gene Function

January 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Biochemistry; Evolutionary Biology. 5121 words.

In cells, DNA is associated with histones, non-histone proteins and RNA in a complex referred to as chromatin. Four different types of histones form octamers (nucleosomes), around which DNA...

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Biochemical adaptation to environmental hypoxia

Jay F. Storz.

in Hemoglobin

November 2018; p ublished online December 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Evolutionary Biology; Biochemistry. 14250 words.

Chapter 8 explores mechanisms of hemoglobin adaptation to environmental hypoxia. Vertebrates living in hypoxic environments face the physiological challenge of optimizing the trade-off...

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