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Buffering North America

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 14509 words.

Washington and Ottawa have tried to keep out most of the Central Americans fleeing to North America beginning in the civil wars of the 1980s. Central America and Mexico buffer the United...

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Building Fortress Europe

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 12569 words.

The European Union since the 1990s has been engaged in a unique project of reducing mobility controls between members while strengthening the external borders and then shifting control...

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The Catch-22 of Asylum Policy

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 7702 words.

Most refugees do not have a legal way of reaching safety in the rich democracies of the Global North. There is no legal line where they can register and wait as their number advances....

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The Dome over the Golden Door

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 5280 words.

The aerial dome is the single most effective block in the architecture of remote control. The contemporary dome over U.S., Canadian, and Mexican airspace was derived from controls over...

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The Euro-Moat

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 10815 words.

European governments acting alone and collectively through Frontex and NATO are intercepting asylum seekers and other migrants far from their shores. Patrolling the moat is tightly linked...

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Never Again?

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 7746 words.

The first major system of remote control specifically targeting refugees was aimed at keeping out European Jews fleeing the Nazis. The United States and Cuba used their maritime forces to...

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The North American Moat

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 11758 words.

The U.S. Coast Guard intercepted more than a quarter of a million migrants, including an unknown number of refugees, between 1982 and 2015. Practices developed by the United States to stop...

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Origins and Limits of Remote Control

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 6822 words.

Many theories try to explain why remote controls of asylum seekers proliferated in the 1980s and 1990s, but most techniques of remote control were developed in the 1930s and 1940s. Policies...

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Protecting Access to Sanctuary

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 4778 words.

Regardless of whether a given technique of remote control sustains legal scrutiny, the cumulative effect of these policies shocks the humanitarian conscience. Diffuse humanitarian norms...

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Raising the Drawbridge to Cuba

David Scott FitzGerald.

in Refuge beyond Reach

May 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Comparative and Historical Sociology; Migration Studies. 9227 words.

U.S. policies toward Cubans have oscillated between periods of welcome and restriction embedded in an overall trajectory of restriction. The biggest difference between the treatment of...

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