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Modern History (1700 to 1945) x clear all

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1801–1804

James G. Patterson.

in In the Wake of the Great Rebellion

August 2008; p ublished online July 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 4299 words.

This chapter describes the movement during 1801–1804. Despite the lull in active resistance brought about by the cessation of hostilities between Britain and France in 1802 much of Ulster...

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1848

Keith Hitchins.

in The Romanians, 1774–1866

June 1996; p ublished online October 2011 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 20881 words.

This chapter discusses the events of 1848, the year that signified the triumph of the idea of nation. Romanian intellectuals made a lot of effort to achieve this, from justifying demands...

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1891–1893

CHRISTOPHER DUGGAN.

in Francesco Crispi 1818-1901

April 2002; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 15111 words.

Francesco Crispi's resignation as Italy's prime minister left him full of rancour. He came to believe that the king and the court had conspired to remove him. However, the scandal of the...

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1916–18

Jonathan D. Smele.

in The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926

February 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 13466 words.

This chapter seeks to establish that the “Russian” Civil Wars began with Central Asian Revolt of 1916, before going on to argue that subsequent events — the February Revolution, the...

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1917–21

Jonathan D. Smele.

in The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926

February 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 19092 words.

This chapter explains the challenges to Bolshevik rule within the Soviet zone during the civil wars, including peasant rebellions against the requisitioning of foodstuffs that were at the...

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1918–19

Jonathan D. Smele.

in The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926

February 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 24115 words.

This chapter examines the escalation of violence across the former Russian Empire as the First World War drew to a close, analysing the origins and early operations of the anti-Bolshevik...

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1919–20

Jonathan D. Smele.

in The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926

February 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 15940 words.

This chapter examines the course and failure of the major attacks on the Soviet state that were launched by the White Armies during 1919–20, paying particular attention to those emanating...

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1920–21

Jonathan D. Smele.

in The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926

February 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 13511 words.

This chapter analyses the Red Army's many operations around the periphery of the former Russian Empire — notably its conquering of the putatively independent republics of Azerbaijan,...

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1921–26

Jonathan D. Smele.

in The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916—1926

February 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 8711 words.

This chapter seeks to establish that elements of the civil wars persisted long after the usually given terminal dates of 1921 or 1922. It surveys the Bolsheviks' establishment of the buffer...

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1936

Tim Rees.

in The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism

January 2014; p ublished online December 2013 .

Article. Subjects: History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 8053 words.

The year 1936 was a momentous one in the history of communism. This was a time of acute uncertainty and fear, during which the Soviet Union and international communist movement faced...

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1937

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 9184 words.

This chapter recounts the weeks leading up to the wedding of Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Schumacher, from March 15 to April 26 of the year 1937. The letters from their period of...

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1937–38

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 4336 words.

This chapter recounts what little correspondence had passed between the Heisenbergs on their first two years of marriage. During this time the couple has been rarely apart and thus had few...

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1939

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 17738 words.

This chapter looks at the Heisenbergs’ correspondence between June and October of 1939. In view of the increasing anticipation of war, Werner travels to America for several weeks, marking...

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1940

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 16021 words.

This chapter features letters from June 9 to October 12, 1940—which cover the early years of World War II and the burdens that the conflict has placed upon the Heisenberg family. The...

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1940

Wendy Webster.

in Mixing It

March 2018; p ublished online February 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Modern History (1700 to 1945). 16106 words.

This chapter focuses on the different groups that arrived in Britain in 1940—mainly from the British Empire and the European continent. Journeys to Britain were often daring, improvised,...

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1941

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 11888 words.

This chapter illustrates the difficulties experienced by the Heisenbergs within and outside of the domestic sphere as the war progressed. With the exception of one letter from Werner in...

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1942

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 4358 words.

This chapter is a reconstruction of events in 1942 based almost solely on Werner’s letters. Like the previous year, only a few of Elisabeth’s letters survive today. Regardless, the...

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1943

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 3288 words.

This chapter details another exchange between the couple in 1943, though once again Elisabeth’s letters have gone missing. The rapidly progressing destruction of the major cities through...

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1944

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 13276 words.

This chapter discusses events close to the end of the war in 1944, once again told mostly from Werner’s letters due to few of Elisabeth’s having survived. One can sense in the letters that...

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1945

Werner Heisenberg and Elisabeth Heisenberg.

Edited by Anna Maria Hirsch-Heisenberg.

in My Dear Li

September 2016; p ublished online January 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Modern History (1700 to 1945). 14814 words.

This chapter provides the few letters that the couple exchanged during the months of July, August, and November in the year 1945. Dire conditions following the tail end of the war add to...

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