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America’s Wars on Poverty and the Building of the Welfare State

David Torstensson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Urban History; Labour History. 11887 words.

On January 5, 2014—the fiftieth anniversary of President Lyndon Johnson’s launch of the War on Poverty—the New York Times asked a panel of opinion leaders a simple question: “Does the U.S....

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American Labor and Working-Class History, 1900–1945

Jeffrey Helgeson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Urban History; Labour History. 14249 words.

Early 20th century American labor and working-class history is a subfield of American social history that focuses attention on the complex lives of working people in a rapidly changing...

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American Urban Planning Since 1850

Harold Platt.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online July 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; US History since 1945; Urban History. 10127 words.

As places of dense habitation, cities have always required coordination and planning. City planning has involved the design and construction of large-scale infrastructure projects to...

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Angel Island Immigration Station

Judy Yung and Erika Lee.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online September 2015 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Urban History; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity). 9390 words.

The Angel Island Immigration Station (1910–1940), located in San Francisco Bay, was one of twenty-four ports of entry established by the U.S. government to process and detain immigrants...

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The Anti-Chinese Massacre in Los Angeles as a Reconstruction-Era Event

Victor Jew.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Civil War and Reconstruction US History; Urban History; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity); Western US History. 9033 words.

Long regarded as a violent outburst significant mainly for California history, the 1871 Los Angeles anti-Chinese massacre raises themes central to America’s Civil War Reconstruction era...

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Architecture in Mexico City, 1940–1980

Kathryn E. O’Rourke.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

P ublished online July 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Latin American History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); Contemporary History (Post 1945); Social and Cultural History; Urban History. 9420 words.

Architecture in Mexico City in the mid-20th century was shaped by rapid economic and urban growth, demographic change, new construction technologies, and politics. Architects adapted...

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The Asian American Movement

Daryl Joji Maeda.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online June 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Political History; Urban History; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity). 7753 words.

The Asian American Movement was a social movement for racial justice, most active during the late 1960s through the mid-1970s, which brought together people of various Asian ancestries in...

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Asian Americans and the 1992 Los Angeles Riots/Uprising

Shelley Sang-Hee Lee.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online March 2015 .

Article. Subjects: African American History; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity); US Cultural History; Urban History. 9661 words.

Although the 1992 Los Angeles riots have been described as a “race riot” sparked by the acquittals of a group of mostly white police officers charged with excessively beating black motorist...

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The Black Freedom Struggle in the Urban North

Thomas J. Sugrue.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online December 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Civil War and Reconstruction US History; Urban History. 18650 words.

Racism in the United States has long been a national problem, not a regional phenomenon. The long and well-documented history of slavery, Jim Crow laws, and racial violence in the South...

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Capoeira: From Slave Combat Game to Global Martial Art

Matthias Röhrig Assunção.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Latin American History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); Slavery and Abolition of Slavery; Social and Cultural History; Urban History. 10703 words.

Capoeira is a martial art that developed from combat games enslaved Africans brought to Brazil. It is systematically documented since the beginning of the 19th century in Rio de Janeiro and...

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The Car and the City

David Blanke.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; US History since 1945; Economic History; Urban History. 11358 words.

The relationship between the car and the city remains complex and involves numerous private and public forces, innovations in technology, global economic fluctuations, and shifting cultural...

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The City Beautiful Movement, 1890–1920

John D. Fairfield.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online April 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; US Cultural History; Urban History. 13503 words.

The City Beautiful movement arose in the 1890s in response to the accumulating dirt and disorder in industrial cities, which threatened economic efficiency and social peace. City Beautiful...

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The Civil Rights Movement in the Urban South

Claudrena N. Harold.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online December 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; Urban History. 11787 words.

The civil rights movement in the urban South transformed the political, economic, and cultural landscape of post–World War II America. Between 1955 and 1968, African Americans and their...

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Company Towns in the United States

Hardy Green.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online March 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Urban History. 8855 words.

Company towns can be defined as communities dominated by a single company, typically focused on one industry. Beyond that very basic definition, company towns varied in their...

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Deindustrialization and the Postindustrial City, 1950–Present

Chloe E. Taft.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Economic History; US Cultural History; Urban History. 11321 words.

The process of urban deindustrialization has been long and uneven. Even the terms “deindustrial” and “postindustrial” are contested; most cities continue to host manufacturing on some...

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The Dominican Colmado from Santo Domingo to New York

Christian Krohn-Hansen.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Caribbean History; Social and Cultural History; Urban History. 8937 words.

The colmado, or the small village or street-corner store, is a Dominican institution. It is typically a general store for basic foodstuffs, cleaning products, toiletries, soft drinks, beer,...

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Drug Subcultures in the American City, 1800–present

Chris Elcock.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online November 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US Cultural History; Urban History. 8211 words.

The use of illicit drugs in US cities led to the development of important subcultures with shared practices, codes, discourses, and values. From the 19th century onward, American city...

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Environmental and Conservation Movements in Metropolitan America

Robert R. Gioielli.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online October 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; US History since 1945; Urban History; Environmental History. 10343 words.

By the late 19th century, American cities like Chicago and New York were marvels of the industrializing world. The shock urbanization of the previous quarter century, however, brought on a...

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Espiritismo and Urban Planning in Cuba: Envisioning Regeneration in Havana and Oriente after 1898

Reinaldo L. Román.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

P ublished online September 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Caribbean History; History of Religion; Urban History. 11916 words.

Espiritismo refers to the practice of communicating with the spirits of the dead by means of especially disposed and trained persons known as mediums. Linked in origin to the...

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The Extraordinary Career of Juana C. Romero, Cacica of Tehuantepec

Francie Chassen-López.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Latin American History

P ublished online February 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Latin American History; Modern History (1700 to 1945); Social and Cultural History; Urban History; History of Gender and Sexuality. 8466 words.

In the 1850s, Juana Catarina Romero, known popularly as Juana Cata, peddled her cigarettes on the streets of Tehuantepec in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, an activity that enabled her to...

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