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Abduction and Explanatory Reasoning

Igor Douven.

in Philosophy

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 5056 words.

The term “abduction” originates in the work of the American pragmatist philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. Roughly, he meant it to indicate the process of searching for hypotheses guided by...

Ability

Evan Butts.

in Philosophy

P ublished online October 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 4808 words.

Ability attribution is a common and important feature of both everyday and theoretical discourse. People are given jobs, picked for teams, and so forth on the basis of their possession (or...

Abortion

Michael Tooley.

in Philosophy

P ublished online May 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 36782 words.

Questions concerning the moral and appropriate legal status of abortion are among the most important issues in applied ethics, and answering those questions involves addressing some...

Abstract Objects

Mark Balaguer.

in Philosophy

P ublished online January 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 7681 words.

An abstract object is a non-physical, non-mental object that exists outside of space and time and is wholly unextended. For example, one might think that numbers are abstract objects; e.g.,...

Abundant Properties

Jennifer McKitrick.

in Dispositional Pluralism

June 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 14139 words.

On an abundant conception of properties, properties serve as semantic values for most predicates and property names. Abundance is central to Dispositional Pluralism. Dispositional Pluralism...

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Accommodating Explanatory Pluralism

Christopher Pincock.

in Explanation Beyond Causation

June 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science; Metaphysics. 9721 words.

Explanatory pluralism is the view that explanations come in two or more different types. This chapter clarifies two versions of explanatory pluralism and considers two very different...

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Accuracy and the Laws of Credence

Richard Pettigrew.

April 2016; p ublished online May 2016 .

Book. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 256 pages.

This book explores a particular way of justifying the rational principles that govern credences (or degrees of belief). The main principles that the book justifies are the central tenets of...

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The accuracy argument for Probabilism

Richard Pettigrew.

in Accuracy and the Laws of Credence

April 2016; p ublished online May 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 6857 words.

This chapter summarizes the results of the investigation so far and gives the final version of the accuracy argument for Probabilism.

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Action

Adrian Haddock.

in Philosophy

P ublished online May 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6449 words.

The philosophy of action shares with its topic a certain uncertainty of location. Is action located inside the mind or outside the mind—or does it in some way belong to both domains...

Actual Causation

Christopher Hitchcock.

in Making a Difference

June 2017; p ublished online July 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 7556 words.

This chapter connects two themes in the work of Peter Menzies: (1) the agency theory of causation; and (2) the analysis of actual causation in terms of structural equation models together...

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The Aesthetic Experience of Artworks and Everyday Scenes

Bence Nanay.

in The Monist

January 2018; p ublished online January 2018 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Science. 5546 words.

Abstract

Some of our aesthetic experiences are of artworks. Some others are of everyday scenes. The question I examine in this paper is about the relation...

Aesthetic Luck

Anna Christina Ribeiro.

in The Monist

January 2018; p ublished online January 2018 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Science. 7914 words.

Abstract

I argue that we are subject to ‘aesthetic luck’ in four senses: constitutive, upbringing, sociogeographic, and circumstantial. I review evidence from...

The Aesthetic Value of Local Food

Matthew Adams.

in The Monist

July 2018; p ublished online June 2018 .

Journal Article. Subjects: Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Science. 8147 words.

Abstract

Local food is often defended on environmental grounds. However, (at least some) environmental defenses of local food are flawed, and all environmental...

Against Conjunctivism

Brian Epstein.

in The Ant Trap

April 2015; p ublished online March 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Philosophy of Science; Metaphysics. 5892 words.

Conjunctivism is the view that anchors are just another kind of grounds, and therefore, that the grounding conditions for social facts are conjunctive: they include both grounds and...

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Against Necessitarianism

Jennifer McKitrick.

in Dispositional Pluralism

June 2018; p ublished online July 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 8177 words.

The laws of nature are at most physically necessary, and they are not metaphysically necessary. Dispositional Essentialists claim that if natural laws derive from powers, then the laws of...

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Agency and Interventionist Theories

James F. Woodward.

in The Oxford Handbook of Causation

November 2009; p ublished online January 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 13486 words.

Agency and interventionist theories of causation take as their point of departure a common-sense idea about the connection between causation and manipulation: causal relationships are...

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Alfred Tarski

Mario Gomez-Torrente.

in Philosophy

P ublished online March 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6396 words.

Alfred Tarski (b. 1901–d. 1983) was a Polish American–mathematician, widely regarded as one of the greatest logicians of all time. Tarski’s work has been influential in philosophy,...

Alteration and Persistence: Form and Matter in the Physics and De Generatione et Corruptione

S. Marc Cohen.

in The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle

August 2012; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Classical Philosophy; Metaphysics; Philosophy of Science. 12006 words.

Aristotle's Physics is a study of nature (phusis) and of natural objects (ta phusei). According to him, these objects—either all of them or at least some of them—are in motion. That is,...

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Analytic Approaches to Aesthetics

Peter Lamarque.

in Philosophy

P ublished online May 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 6534 words.

Aesthetics is broadly that branch of philosophy concerned with fundamental questions about the nature of beauty, the nature of art, and the principles of art criticism. Some of these...

Analytic Approaches to Pornography and Objectification

Mary Kate McGowan and Bianka Takaoka.

in Philosophy

P ublished online May 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Philosophy; Aesthetics and Philosophy of Art; Epistemology; Feminist Philosophy; History of Western Philosophy; Metaphysics; Moral Philosophy; Non-Western Philosophy; Philosophy of Language; Philosophy of Law; Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic; Philosophy of Mind; Philosophy of Religion; Philosophy of Science; Social and Political Philosophy. 4732 words.

Analytic philosophers have explored whether and how pornography, or its consumption, contributes to the (sexual) objectification of women. This essay describes that literature. It does not...