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Abhidharma/Abhidhamma Literature

Rupert Gethin.

in Buddhism

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 14449 words.

The Sanskrit term abhidharma (Pali abhidhamma) probably derives from the expression abhi dharme, “about or relating to the teaching,” indicating the secondary discussion and investigation...

Abhijñā/Ṛddhi (Extraordinary Knowledge and Powers)

David Fiordalis.

in Buddhism

P ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8540 words.

Abhijñā (Pali: abhiññā) is a Buddhist technical term that refers most specifically to a set of extraordinary powers and knowledge, including remembrance of past lives, telepathy,...

Ajanta Caves

Akira Shimada.

in Buddhism

P ublished online February 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 4639 words.

Ajaṇṭā is a Buddhist rock-cut cave site in Aurangabad District of Maharashtra State, western India. It was discovered in 1819 by British Army officers who were hunting tigers in the great...

Alāyavijñāna

William S. Waldron.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 4933 words.

Ālaya-vijñāna (storehouse consciousness) refers to a level of subliminal mental processes that occur uninterruptedly throughout one’s life and, in the Buddhist view, one’s multiple...

Ambedkar Buddhism

Christopher S. Queen.

in Buddhism

P ublished online January 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 6569 words.

Ambedkar Buddhism, or Navayana (“new vehicle”) Buddhism, began on 14 October 1956 in Nagpur, India, when nearly 400,000 Dalits, formerly known as Untouchables, converted from Hinduism. Led...

Amitābha

Galen Amstutz.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 16305 words.

The three topics of Amitābha (in Japanese, Amida; in Chinese, Amituo), Pure Land Buddhism, and nembutsu are always linked together. The Buddha Amitābha was the Mahayana deity at the center...

Amitābha

Galen Amstutz.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2010 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 16305 words.

The three topics of Amitābha (in Japanese, Amida; in Chinese, Amituo), Pure Land Buddhism, and nembutsu are always linked together. The Buddha Amitābha was the Mahayana deity at the center...

Anātman

K.T.S. Sarao.

in Buddhism

P ublished online February 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 7411 words.

The term ātman (Pāli. attā/atta) is often translated into English as “self, soul, or ego.” As compared to this, anātman (Pāli. anattā), which is the antonym of ātman, may be translated into...

Ancient Indian Society

Greg Bailey.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 7136 words.

This article provides bibliographic information on ancient Indian society from 2500 bce until 300 ce, with most of the relevant publications relating to the period 500 bce to 300 ce. For...

Anthropology

Ivette Vargas-O’Bryan.

in Buddhism

P ublished online February 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8003 words.

Although the study of the anthropology of Buddhism falls within the anthropology of religion, it has evolved into its own interdisciplinary area, almost an “applied anthropology” for those...

Archaeology of Early Buddhism

Robin Coningham.

in Buddhism

P ublished online March 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 10553 words.

The archaeology of Buddhism has been portrayed as the excavation of individual monuments and the chronological review of regional style. Reports focus on isolated monuments, and...

Arhat

George D. Bond.

in Buddhism

P ublished online December 2011 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 4824 words.

The term arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) denotes for Buddhism a being who has reached a state of perfection and enlightenment. The term has been thought to derive from pre-Buddhist...

Āryadeva

Karen C. Lang.

in Buddhism

P ublished online April 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 4637 words.

Āryadeva (3rd century), a disciple of Nāgārjuna, is a central figure in the development of early Indian Madhyamaka philosophy. Āryadeva’s Hundred Verses Treatise (Bai lun) was one of the...

Asaṅga

Ligeia Lugli.

in Buddhism

P ublished online November 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8492 words.

As with many early South Asian thinkers, little is known about Asaṅga. His importance in the history of Buddhism lies mainly in his role in the systematization of Yogācāra, to which his...

Aśoka

Kumkum Roy, Romila Thapar and Naina Dayal.

in Buddhism

P ublished online September 2014 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 7654 words.

Aśoka has attracted more scholarly and popular attention than any other king known from ancient Indian history. This has persisted through nearly two centuries, since the first decipherment...

Avalokiteśvara

Chün-fang Yü.

in Buddhism

P ublished online April 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 6161 words.

One major difference between Mahayana Buddhism and early or Mainstream Buddhism is the worship of many buddhas and bodhisattvas (beings of enlightenment). Of the many bodhisattvas,...

Avataṃsaka Sutra

Imre Hamar.

in Buddhism

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 5128 words.

The Avataṃsaka-sūtra is a short name for the voluminous Mahayana sutra titled Buddhāvataṃsaka-sūtra, which has survived in Chinese and Tibetan translations, but its two important chapters,...

Awakening of Faith

Jason Clower.

in Buddhism

P ublished online April 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 6827 words.

The Awakening of Faith (Ch. Dasheng qixin lun, Jpn. Daijō kishinron 大乘起信論) claims, in its colophon, to have been written by “Aśvaghoṣa” (presumably the 1st- or 2nd-century north Indian...

Bhāviveka / Bhāvaviveka

Malcolm David Eckel.

in Buddhism

P ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 4705 words.

Bhāviveka or Bhāvaviveka (also known as Bhavya) was an influential 6th-century Indian Buddhist philosopher. He is best known as a commentator on Root Verses on the Middle Way...

Bodh Gaya

Janice Leoshko.

in Buddhism

P ublished online January 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Buddhism; Tibetan Buddhism; Zen Buddhism. 8835 words.

Bodhgayā (alternatively Bodhgaya, Bodh Gaya, Buddha Gaya, or Buddhagaya) is believed to be the place where the historical Buddha Shakyamuni (Siddhartha Gautama) attained enlightenment....