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Sports and Outdoor Recreation x clear all

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Abbott, Cleveland

Anne M. Blaschke.

in American National Biography Online

P ublished online April 2014 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation; Education. 1317 words.

Abbott, Cleveland (09 December 1892–14 April 1955), Tuskegee Institute educator, administrator, and athletic coach, was born in Yankton, South Dakota, one of seven children of Mollie Brown...

ABC TV

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 242 words.

A US national television network broadcaster that has been one of the major investors—along with CBS and NBC—in sports programming in the USA. These three network broadcasters dominated...

Abel, Robert [Bobby] (1857–1936), cricketer

Eric Midwinter.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 654 words.

Abel, Robert [Bobby] (1857–1936), cricketer, was born at 18 Commercial Street, Rotherhithe, London, on 30 November 1857, the son of Thomas Abel (b. c.1815), a lamplighter, and his wife,...

Abraham, Ashley Perry (1876–1951)

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Photography and Photographs; Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 4 words.

See Abraham, George Dixon

Abraham, George Dixon (1871–1965), photographer and rock-climber

Anita McConnell.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Photography and Photographs; Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 810 words.

Abraham, George Dixon (1871–1965), photographer and rock-climber, was born at Derwent Street, Keswick, Cumberland, on 7 October 1871, the eldest son of George Perry Abraham (1844–1923),...

Abrahams, Harold Maurice

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 445 words.

(1899–1978)

An English athlete and athletics administrator, who both epitomized and challenged the prevailing ethos of *amateurism...

Abrahams, Harold Maurice (1899–1978), athlete and civil servant

Norris McWhirter.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation; UK Politics; Political Institutions. 1416 words.

Abrahams, Harold Maurice (1899–1978), athlete and civil servant, was born at 30 Rutland Road, Bedford, on 15 December 1899, the youngest in the family of two daughters and four sons of...

Academies and Camps

in Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport

January 2013; p ublished online August 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 1215 words.

Sports academies and camps are programs usually created and run to teach and develop youth athletes, but many camps are also meant for adults. Some camps are free-standing...

acclimatization

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 205 words.

Refers to the biological adaptations that take place in the body in response to extremes of pressure, heat, and cold. The body adapts acutely and chronically. The extent of the adaptation...

achieved status

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 7 words.

achievement orientation

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 162 words.

In psychology, the state of an athlete in relation to a competitive or evaluative situation, ranging from a competitive drive for success and excellence to the fear of underachieving or...

action research

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 244 words.

Research designed to affect the context of the study, to feed back into the way an organization works, for instance, or the manner in which an activity is undertaken. The action researcher...

addiction

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 4 words.

Adidas

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 844 words.

A multinational corporation specializing in sports goods that, founded as a small shoe company in Germany in 1920, became ‘Gebrüder Dassler, Sportschufabrik, Herzogenaurach’ in ...

Adorno, Theodor W.

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 234 words.

(1903–69)

A German philosopher, aesthetician, and social theorist who was one of the most prominent individual members of the Frankfurt School of ...

adrenaline

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 150 words.

A hormone that, secreted by the adrenal ductless glands, affects muscular action and creates more energy. In sport, adrenaline rush—the process of intensifying the release of adrenaline...

Adrian, Richard William [known as Kid Tanner] (1911x14–1963), boxer

Gary Shaw.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online September 2014 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 827 words.

Adrian, Richard William [known as Kid Tanner] (1911x14–1963), boxer, was born in Fellowship, British Guiana (later Guyana), on 16 March, probably between 1911 and 1914 though some reports...

adventure sports

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 106 words.

A term widely used but rarely defined, relating to broad and imprecise categories of outdoor activity and what are also referred to as ...

aerobic

Alan Tomlinson.

in A Dictionary of Sports Studies

January 2010; p ublished online January 2010 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 215 words.

A term describing the metabolic pathway that involves the breakdown of carbohydrate, fat, and to a lesser degree protein, in the presence of oxygen. Energy is captured in the phosphate...

Aerobics

in Berkshire Encyclopedia of World Sport

January 2013; p ublished online August 2016 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Sports and Outdoor Recreation. 1564 words.

Aerobics, group exercise done to music, first became popular in the 1980s in the United States and has since spread worldwide. Aerobics began as “fun” exercise for...