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Crystallography x clear all

Adhesion and friction

Victor F. Petrenko and Robert W. Whitworth.

in Physics of Ice

January 2002; p ublished online February 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 3106 words.

This chapter first discusses experiments on the adhesion of ice to other materials, which presents very real practical problems in cold climates. It then considers the low coefficient of...

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Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry

Wai-Kee Li, Gong-Du Zhou and Thomas Mak.

March 2008; p ublished online May 2008 .

Book. Subjects: Crystallography. 848 pages.

This text is an updated English version of a class-tested textbook originally published in Chinese in 2006. Its contents are based on the lecture notes of several courses taught by the...

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Alice Grace Jenny Bragg

A.M. Glazer and Patience Thomson.

in Crystal Clear

July 2015; p ublished online August 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography; History of Science and Technology. 80897 words.

This chapter begins with an outline of the history of Alice Bragg’s family, starting first with her father’s side of the family and then her mother’s side, providing excerpts from her...

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Alternative approaches

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell and Edward H. Snell.

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

March 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 2888 words.

The arsenal of techniques extends to more biophysics‐based approaches to improving crystal quality or minimizing sample, singly or in combination. These include use of gels, microgravity,...

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Alternative approaches to structure description

Sergry V. Krivovichev.

in Structural Crystallography of Inorganic Oxysalts

January 2009; p ublished online May 2009 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 11984 words.

This chapter is devoted to alternative approaches to description of complex structures of inorganic oxysalts. These include, first, treatment in terms of anion-centered polyhedra (either...

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Analysing disordered structures

Reinhard B. Neder and Thomas Proffen.

in Diffuse Scattering and Defect Structure Simulations

July 2008; p ublished online September 2008 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 4981 words.

This chapter addresses the question of how to visualize a large disordered structure and how to extract information describing the disorder from a large model crystal. Topics include the...

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Analysis of extended inorganic structures

John Evans.

in Crystal Structure Analysis

June 2009; p ublished online September 2009 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 6076 words.

Extended (polymeric) inorganic structures present different problems to crystallographers than molecular structures. The samples are often tiny crystals, atomic scattering powers vary...

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Analysis of interparticle interactions

Dmitri I. Svergun, Michel H. J. Koch, Peter A. Timmins and Roland P. May.

in Small Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering from Solutions of Biological Macromolecules

August 2013; p ublished online December 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 12995 words.

Methods for the quantitative description of intermolecular interactions, which influence the scattering pattern through the structure factor, are introduced. The relationship between the...

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Analysis of long‐range order

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell and Edward H. Snell.

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

March 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 5025 words.

Mosaicity, topography, and reciprocal‐space mapping are all techniques to probe the physical characteristics of the crystals through their interaction with X‐rays. The techniques described...

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Analysis of the molecular short‐range order

Naomi E. Chayen, John R. Helliwell and Edward H. Snell.

in Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

March 2010; p ublished online May 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 1908 words.

Whilst the transition from short‐range order to long‐range order is not a sharp transition, i.e. there is a steady progression, there are metrics to judge the shorter‐range effects. These...

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Analytical techniques for studying and characterizing polymorphs

Joel Bernstein.

in Polymorphism in Molecular Crystals

December 2007; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 16796 words.

This chapter reviews the variety of analytical methods used in the investigation and characterization of molecular solids in general, and varieties of crystal forms in particular. The...

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Anion and cation bonding strengths

I. David Brown.

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry

May 2006; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 3891 words.

The bonding strengths of the ions, listed in Appendix 4, are the valences of the bonds the ions typically form, i.e. their atomic valence divided by a typical coordination number. Bonding...

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Anion-topology approach

Sergry V. Krivovichev.

in Structural Crystallography of Inorganic Oxysalts

January 2009; p ublished online May 2009 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 2094 words.

This chapter deals with description of dense 2-D topologies using the concept of anion-topology introduced by P. C. Burns and co-authors for the analysis of uranyl layered structures. Anion...

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Aperiodic Crystals

Ted Janssen, Gervais Chapuis and Marc de Boissieu.

May 2007; p ublished online September 2007 .

Book. Subjects: Crystallography. 480 pages.

Until the 1970s, all materials studied consisted of periodic arrays of unit cells, or were amorphous. In the last decades a new class of solid state matter, called aperiodic crystals, has...

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Aperiodic Crystals

Ted Janssen, Gervais Chapuis and Marc de Boissieu.

June 2018; p ublished online August 2018 .

Book. Subjects: Crystallography; Condensed Matter Physics. 560 pages.

Until the 1970s all materials studied consisted of periodic arrays of unit cells, or were amorphous. In the following decades a new class of solid state matter, called aperiodic crystals,...

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Application of Group Theory to Molecular Systems

Wai-Kee Li, Gong-Du Zhou and Thomas Chung Wai Mak.

in Advanced Structural Inorganic Chemistry

March 2008; p ublished online May 2008 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 21434 words.

This chapter applies the group theoretic technique introduced in Chapter 6 to a number of chemically interesting problems. These problems include molecular orbital treatment of AHnull...

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Application of modularity to structure description and modelling

Giovanni Ferraris, Emil Makovicky and Stefano Merlino.

in Crystallography of Modular Materials

May 2008; p ublished online September 2008 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 19262 words.

The chapter provides examples of groups of crystal structures (series) based on (i) the same set of modules (polysomatism), (ii) a fixed and a variable set of modules (merotypy), and (iii)...

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Applications

I. David Brown.

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry

September 2016; p ublished online November 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography; Condensed Matter Physics. 16022 words.

The competition between chemical and spatial constraints leads to the unusual properties of many materials that have been analysed using the bond valence model. Applications are found in...

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Applications

I. David Brown.

in The Chemical Bond in Inorganic Chemistry

May 2006; p ublished online January 2010 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 11738 words.

Practical applications of the bond valence model can be found in the solution and analysis of crystal structures, in the physical properties of materials, in mineralogy, chemistry and...

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Applications of electron crystallography

Xiaodong Zou, Sven Hovmöller and Peter Oleynikov.

in Electron Crystallography

August 2011; p ublished online January 2012 .

Chapter. Subjects: Crystallography. 4915 words.

Several recent and advanced applications of electron crystallography are reviewed. They range from a series of intermetallic compounds solved from electron diffraction data by direct...

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