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Centres of diversity

Martin F. Price.

in Mountains

September 2015; p ublished online September 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 3692 words.

‘Centres of diversity’ considers the Earth’s biodiversity hotspots and the benefits derived from this biodiversity. Conservation International has identified thirty-four ‘biodiversity...

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The changing landscape

in Landscapes and Geomorphology

August 2010; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 3626 words.

‘The changing landscape’ outlines the three main elements of geomorphology: landforms (such as river valleys, beaches, yardangs), Earth surface processes (exogenic, or ‘outside’ processes,...

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Changing patterns in the landscape

Peter A. Furley.

in Savannas

June 2016; p ublished online June 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 6478 words.

Relentless population growth worldwide has significantly modified savanna landscapes. ‘Changing patterns in the landscape’ considers how landscape changes differ in Latin America, Africa,...

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Climate change in the mountains

Martin F. Price.

in Mountains

September 2015; p ublished online September 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 5741 words.

‘Climate change in the mountains’ examines the evidence of climate change in mountains, the most compelling being the melting of glaciers and the upwards movement of plants on mountain...

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Deep waters

Warwick F. Vincent.

in Lakes: A Very Short Introduction

January 2018; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 5645 words.

‘Deep waters’ explains the role of François A. Forel in the birth and development of limnology, a new integrative science he defined as ‘the oceanography of lakes’. In his comprehensive...

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Deposited by ice

David J. A. Evans.

in Glaciation: A Very Short Introduction

October 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 2774 words.

There are two types of primary glacial sediment created by glacier beds acting as shearing zones within which a subglacial deforming layer is developed: till and glacitectonite. ‘Deposited...

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Desert Climates

in Deserts

November 2009; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 6760 words.

Aridity is a common feature of deserts but there are many different types of aridity. ‘Desert climates’ tackles the causes of aridity, the variety of climates that exist in deserts, and...

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Desert Connections

in Deserts

November 2009; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 3558 words.

‘Desert connections’ looks at how deserts interact with the rest of the world. Deserts are integral to the total Earth system. Dust from the Sahara is blown to southern Europe where it is...

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Desert Landscapes

in Deserts

November 2009; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 6957 words.

‘Desert landscapes’ describes the variety to be found in deserts across the world. Some deserts are flat and unchanging, while others feature dramatic dune ranges punctuated by shallow...

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Desert peoples

in Deserts

November 2009; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 9240 words.

‘Desert peoples’ is an introduction to some of the billion people who currently live in deserts. Environments and lifestyles range from nomadic hunter-gatherers to pastoralists, farmers,...

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Deserts

November 2009; p ublished online September 2013 .

Book. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 152 pages.

Deserts: A Very Short Introduction explores the nature of deserts and the extent of their variety, climates, landscapes, wildlife, and human habitation. Typified by drought and extremes of...

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Epilogue

in Rivers

April 2012; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 326 words.

We are all affected by rivers in some way, either by living next to one or through the plumbing systems in our homes. Rivers' impact on human society is immense and always has been. Rivers...

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Eroded by ice

David J. A. Evans.

in Glaciation: A Very Short Introduction

October 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 2494 words.

There is a very wide range of spatial and temporal scales reflected in the types of glacial erosional landforms, from individual millimetre-wide striae that can form over a few days to...

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Extreme lakes

Warwick F. Vincent.

in Lakes: A Very Short Introduction

January 2018; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 5172 words.

‘Extreme lakes’ describes a range of lakes that are of great scientific interest because of their unusual physical, chemical, and biological features. Salt water lakes occur in many parts...

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Food chains to fish

Warwick F. Vincent.

in Lakes: A Very Short Introduction

January 2018; p ublished online January 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 5912 words.

‘Food chains to fish’ considers the nature of pelagic and benthic food webs and the coupling between them. Life at the bottom of lakes in the benthic zone is mostly made up of worms,...

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The glacial dirt machine

David J. A. Evans.

in Glaciation: A Very Short Introduction

October 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 8626 words.

Glaciers and ice sheets create landscape change in three main ways: erosion, deposition, and deformation. The combination of these processes has given glaciers the reputation of being...

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Glaciation: A Very Short Introduction

David J. A. Evans.

October 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Book. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 200 pages.

Vast, majestic, and often stunningly beautiful, glaciers lock up some 10 per cent of the world’s fresh water. These great bodies of ice play an important part in the Earth system, carving...

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Glacier ice: definitions and dynamics

David J. A. Evans.

in Glaciation: A Very Short Introduction

October 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 3928 words.

The shape and size of glacier ice bodies (their morphology) is dictated by the interplay between climate and topography, and a classification scheme has been adopted to cover all the...

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Glacier ice: discovery and understanding

David J. A. Evans.

in Glaciation: A Very Short Introduction

October 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 6371 words.

‘Glacier ice: discovery and understanding’ considers how and why glaciers are formed and the history of the study of glaciers, which has enhanced our knowledge. Glacier ice will form...

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Glaciers, humans, and enduring ice

David J. A. Evans.

in Glaciation: A Very Short Introduction

October 2018; p ublished online October 2018 .

Chapter. Subjects: Physical Geography and Topography. 2090 words.

A knowledge of glaciation is important because it provides us with an understanding of glaciers as Earth surface systems face climate change and of the glacial materials beneath the...

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