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Abel Smith, Col Richard Francis

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Social and Cultural History; Military History; Warfare and Defence. 135 words.

Born 11 Oct. 1933; s of Col Sir Henry Abel Smith, KCMG, KCVO, DSO and late Lady May Cambridge, o d of Earl of Athlone, KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, DSO, PC, FRS and Princess Alice,...

Acland, Maj.-Gen. Sir John (Hugh Bevil)

in Who Was Who

P ublished online December 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Social and Cultural History; Military History; Warfare and Defence. 257 words.

KCB 1980; CBE 1978

Born 26 Nov. 1928; s of late Brig. Peter Acland, OBE, MC, TD and Bridget Susan Acland; m 1953, Myrtle Christian Euing, d of Brig. and Mrs Alastair...

Acworth, Angus Whiteford (1898–1981), financier and conservationist

Simon Swynfen Jervis.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online May 2015 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Banking; Social and Cultural History; Conservation of the Environment (Social Science). 1428 words.

Acworth, Angus Whiteford (1898–1981), financier and conservationist, was born on 20 October 1898 at Braeside, Shoot Up Hill, Cricklewood, London, the only son and second of the four...

Aitken, William (1812?–1869), Chartist and factory reformer

Robert G. Hall.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2007 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Politics. 1042 words.

Aitken, William (1812?–1869), Chartist and factory reformer, was born in a barrack room near Dunbar, possibly on 2 June 1812, the youngest but one of nine children of Scottish parents,...

Akroyd, Edward (1810–1887), industrialist and philanthropist

John A. Hargreaves.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1549 words.

Akroyd, Edward (1810–1887), industrialist and philanthropist, was born on 28 November 1810 at Brockholes, near Brookhouse, Ovenden, Halifax, the eldest of the ten children of Jonathan...

Albert, Octavia Victoria Rogers

Frances Smith Foster.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Biographical Studies. 914 words.

Albert, Octavia Victoria Rogers (24 December 1853–1890?), author and activist, was born in Oglethorpe, Georgia, the daughter of slaves. Details of her life are sketchy. Little is known of...

Aldis, Charles James Berridge (1808–1872), physician and public health reformer

Bill Luckin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health. 971 words.

Aldis, Charles James Berridge (1808–1872), physician and public health reformer, and the eldest son of Sir Charles Aldis (1776–1863), surgeon, was born in London on 16 January 1808. He was...

Alex, (Edward) Ephraim (1800–1882), founder of the Jewish Board of Guardians

Doreen Berger.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics and Law; Social and Cultural History; Welfare and Poverty; Judaism and Jewish Studies; Ethnic Politics. 839 words.

Alex, (Edward) Ephraim (1800–1882), founder of the Jewish Board of Guardians, was born on 12 December 1800 in St Katherine in the City of London. He was the eldest surviving son of Solomon...

Alexander, George William (1802–1890), banker and philanthropist

Gordon Fletcher.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Banking. 1023 words.

Alexander, George William (1802–1890), banker and philanthropist, was born on 25 April 1802 in Bunhill Row, London, the first of nine children, eight of whom survived to maturity, of...

Allen, Nathan

Richard J. Wolfe.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Society and Culture; Medicine and Health. 1199 words.

Allen, Nathan (25 April 1813–01 January 1889), physician, social reformer, and public health advocate, was born in Princeton, Massachusetts, the son of Moses Allen and Mehitable Oliver,...

Altman, Benjamin

Dennis Wepman.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Financial Aspects of Art; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1110 words.

Altman, Benjamin (12 July 1840–07 October 1913), merchant and art collector, was born in New York, New York, the son of Philip Altman, a dry goods merchant, and Cecilia (maiden name...

Archbold, John Dustin

Edward L. Lach, Jr..

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1152 words.

Archbold, John Dustin (26 July 1848–05 December 1916), oil industry executive and philanthropist, was born in Leesburg, Ohio, the son of Israel Archbold, a minister, and Frances Dana. His...

Armistice and Blockade

Mary Elisabeth Cox.

in Hunger in War and Peace

May 2019; p ublished online June 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Economic History; Social and Cultural History. 14596 words.

Germans hoped the Allied blockade would be lifted with the Armistice, yet it was not fully lifted until July 1919, after the Treaty of Versailles had been signed. Interim treaties relating...

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Arnott, Neil (1788–1874), physician and public health reformer

Bill Luckin.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Labour and Demographic Economics; Medicine and Health. 1528 words.

Arnott, Neil (1788–1874), physician and public health reformer, the son of William Arnott, a manufacturer and farmer, and his wife, Ann Maclean, was born at Arbroath in Forfarshire,...

Ashton, Thomas (1818–1898), cotton manufacturer and philanthropist

Jane Bedford.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1032 words.

Ashton, Thomas (1818–1898), cotton manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 8 December 1818 at Flowery Fields House, Hyde, Cheshire, sixth child to Thomas Ashton (1775–1845) of Flowery...

Aske, Robert (1619–1689), silk merchant and benefactor

David Griffiths.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online September 2006 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction; Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture. 1350 words.

Aske, Robert (1619–1689), silk merchant and benefactor, was born on 24 February 1619, the son of Robert Aske of the parish of St Mary Woolchurch, London, and his second wife, Margery...

Astor, John Jacob, III

Jerome Mushkat.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Banking. 857 words.

Astor, John Jacob, III (10 June 1822–22 February 1890), capitalist and philanthropist, was born in New York City, the son of William Backhouse Astor and Margaret Rebecca Armstrong. The...

Astor, William Waldorf

Bonnie Marie Sykes.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Banking. 961 words.

Astor, William Waldorf (31 March 1848–18 October 1919), businessman and philanthropist, was born in New York City, the son of John Jacob Astor, a businessman, and Charlotte Gibbes. Astor...

Atkinson, Edward

Gregory Kaster.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Society and Culture; Manufacturing; History of Manufacturing and Construction. 1154 words.

Atkinson, Edward (10 February 1827–11 December 1905), businessman and reformer, was born in Brookline, Massachusetts, the son of Amos Atkinson II, a merchant, and Anna Greenleaf Sawyer. He...

Atwater, Helen Woodard

Janet Carlisle Bogdan.

in American National Biography Online

January 1999; p ublished online February 2000 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Social and Cultural History; Household Behaviour and Family Economics. 1081 words.

Atwater, Helen Woodard (29 May 1876–26 June 1947), home economist, was born in Somerville, Massachusetts, the daughter of Wilbur Olin Atwater, an agricultural and food chemistry pioneer and...