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America’s Wars on Poverty and the Building of the Welfare State

David Torstensson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online March 2016 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Urban History; Labour History. 11887 words.

On January 5, 2014—the fiftieth anniversary of President Lyndon Johnson’s launch of the War on Poverty—the New York Times asked a panel of opinion leaders a simple question: “Does the U.S....

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American Film since 1945

Joshua Gleich.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online February 2017 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; US Cultural History; Labour History. 7495 words.

Over the past seventy years, the American film industry has transformed from mass-producing movies to producing a limited number of massive blockbuster movies on a global scale. Hollywood...

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American Labor and Working-Class History, 1900–1945

Jeffrey Helgeson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online August 2016 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Urban History; Labour History. 14249 words.

Early 20th century American labor and working-class history is a subfield of American social history that focuses attention on the complex lives of working people in a rapidly changing...

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Arab Labor Migration in the Americas, 1880–1930

Stacy D. Fahrenthold.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online May 2019 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Labour History. 8911 words.

Between 1880 and 1924, an estimated half million Arab migrants left the Ottoman Empire to live and work in the Americas. Responding to new economic forces linking the Mediterranean and...

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Bracero Guest Worker Program

Ana Elizabeth Rosas.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; US History since 1945; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity); Labour History; Legal and Constitutional History. 230 words.

This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History. Please check back later for the full article.

On...

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Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Movement

Matt Garcia.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online May 2016 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Labour History; Environmental History; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity); Western US History. 7874 words.

In September 1962, the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA) held its first convention in Fresno, California, initiating a multiracial movement that would result in the creation of...

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Communist Party USA, 1919 to 1957

James R. Barrett.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Political History; Labour History. 6643 words.

The largest and most important revolutionary socialist organization in US history, the Communist Party USA was always a minority influence. It reached considerable size and influence,...

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Domestic Workers in U.S. History

Vanessa May.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Labour History; American Women's History. 9282 words.

Domestic work was, until 1940, the largest category of women’s paid labor. Despite the number of women who performed domestic labor for pay, the wages and working conditions were often...

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Employers’ Associations and Open Shops in the United States

Chad Pearson.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Labour History. 12815 words.

Employers began organizing with one another to reduce the power of organized labor in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Irritated by strikes, boycotts, and unions’ desire to achieve...

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The Failure of Labor Unionism in the US South

Cody R. Melcher and Michael Goldfield.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online November 2019 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Labour History; Southern US History. 11894 words.

The failure of labor unions to succeed in the American South, largely because national unions proved unable or unwilling to confront white supremacy head on, offers an important key to...

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The First Red Scare

Adam J. Hodges.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Labour History. 9683 words.

The first Red Scare, which occurred in 1919–1920, emerged out of longer clashes in the United States over the processes of industrialization, immigration, and urbanization as well as...

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Gender Rights and American Employment

Katherine Turk.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online February 2019 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Legal and Constitutional History; Labour History; American Women's History. 8861 words.

Throughout American history, gender, meaning notions of essential differences between women and men, has shaped how Americans have defined and engaged in productive activity. Work has been...

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The Great Depression

Erik Gellman and Margaret Rung.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online April 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Urban History; Labour History. 15640 words.

From the late 1920s through the 1930s, countries on every inhabited continent suffered through a dramatic and wrenching economic contraction termed the Great Depression, an economic...

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Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy

Timothy Messer-Kruse.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1870-1900; Political History; Labour History. 7567 words.

The Haymarket Riot and Conspiracy of 1886 is a landmark in American social and political history. On May 4, 1886, during an open-air meeting near Haymarket Square in Chicago, someone threw...

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Irish American Working Class

David Brundage.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online October 2017 .

Article. Subjects: US Cultural History; Urban History; Labour History. 8888 words.

Between the 1790s and the 1990s, the Irish American population grew from some 500,000 to nearly 40 million. Part of this growth was due to immigration, especially in the years of the Great...

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McCarthyism and the Second Red Scare

Landon R. Y. Storrs.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; US Cultural History; Labour History. 9883 words.

The second Red Scare refers to the fear of communism that permeated American politics, culture, and society from the late 1940s through the 1950s, during the opening phases of the Cold War...

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Mexican Immigration to the United States

Ramón A. Gutiérrez.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online July 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Labour History; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity). 13456 words.

The history of Mexican immigration to the United States is best characterized as the movement of unskilled, manual laborers pushed northward mostly by poverty and unemployment and pulled in...

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Municipal Housing in America

Margaret Garb.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online September 2015 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; US History since 1945; Urban History; Labour History. 11806 words.

Housing in America has long stood as a symbol of the nation’s political values and a measure of its economic health. In the 18th century, a farmhouse represented Thomas Jefferson’s ideal of...

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The New Deal

Wendy L. Wall.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online December 2016 .

Article. Subjects: US History 1900 - 1945; Economic History; US Cultural History; Urban History; Labour History. 15478 words.

The New Deal generally refers to a set of domestic policies implemented by the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in response to the crisis of the Great Depression. Propelled by...

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Organized Labor and the Civil Rights Movement

Alan Draper.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; Labour History; African American History. 8572 words.

The relationship between organized labor and the civil rights movement proceeded along two tracks. At work, the two groups were adversaries, as civil rights groups criticized employment...

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