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Advanced Education

Richard Archer.

in Jim Crow North

December 2017; p ublished online September 2017 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas; Political History. 7348 words.

People of European descent and of African descent who struggled for equal rights agreed that education, including higher education, was essential for black advancement. When white reformers...

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The Advent of the People’s Court

Yoram Meital.

in Revolutionary Justice

December 2016; p ublished online November 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: Asian History; Political History. 13135 words.

This chapter examines the circumstances surrounding the establishment of the People’s Court and its exceptional powers. The RCC saw the tribunal as a mean to promote much broader objectives...

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After the Vote

Elisabeth Israels Perry.

March 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Book. Subjects: History of the Americas; Political History. 384 pages.

Soon after his first inauguration in 1934, New York City mayor Fiorello La Guardia began appointing women into his administration. By the end of his three terms he had installed almost a...

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 All-Solar Houses

Daniel A. Barber.

in A House in the Sun

December 2016; p ublished online October 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas; Political History. 10362 words.

At MIT, the interest in solar house heating had become so widespread that distinct positions started to develop; the MIT Fund’s stance was that solar house heating was experimentally...

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Alternative Spiritualities and Alternatives to Spirituality

Alan S. Kahan.

in Tocqueville, Democracy, and Religion

August 2015; p ublished online August 2015 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas; Political History. 11150 words.

Tocqueville thought some form of spiritual check and balance was necessary for democratic societies, and that religion was the best form. However, he also considered alternatives, which...

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American Environmental Policy since 1964

Richard N. L. Andrews.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; Environmental History. 8829 words.

Between 1964 and 2017, the United States adopted the concept of environmental policy as a new focus for a broad range of previously disparate policy issues affecting human interactions with...

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American Indian Activism after 1945

Bradley Shreve.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online November 2016 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; Native American History. 10350 words.

American Indian activism after 1945 was as much a part of the larger, global decolonization movement rooted in centuries of imperialism as it was a direct response to the ethos of civic...

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American Political History

Donald Critchlow.

December 2014; p ublished online February 2015 .

Book. Subjects: Political History; US Social History; Regional Political Studies. 168 pages.

American Political History: A Very Short Introduction explores key turning points in American political history, the nature of the two-party system, representative presidential and...

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Angevin kingship: making and breaking royal law

Nicholas Vincent.

in Magna Carta

June 2012; p ublished online September 2013 .

Chapter. Subjects: Medieval and Renaissance History (500 to 1500); Political History; British History. 4948 words.

‘Angevin kingship: making and breaking royal law’ examines the context of Plantagenent rule, with particular attention given to legal matters. The Plantagenents have a reputation for...

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Antimonopoly in American Politics, 1945–2000

Daniel Scroop.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; Economic History. 8716 words.

Antimonopoly, meaning opposition to the exclusive or near-exclusive control of an industry or business by one or a very few businesses, played a relatively muted role in the history of the...

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Arab-Israeli Wars and US Foreign Policy

Seth Anziska.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Diplomatic History; Political History. 11292 words.

American policy toward the Arab-Israeli conflict has reflected dueling impulses at the heart of US-Middle East relations since World War II: growing support for Zionism and Israeli...

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 Architecture and the Sun

Daniel A. Barber.

in A House in the Sun

December 2016; p ublished online October 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas; Political History. 13605 words.

The Association for Applied Solar Energy seemed to be an ideal place for the incubation of solar technology, especially after the excitement that had been generated by its 1955 World...

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Ashton, John (c. 1653–1691), official in the royal household and Jacobite conspirator

Paul Hopkins.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History; Social and Cultural History. 1558 words.

Ashton, John (c. 1653–1691), official in the royal household and Jacobite conspirator, was the son of Andrew Ashton (d. 1679), of Liverpool, and his wife, Alice. His father was apparently a...

The Asian American Movement

Daryl Joji Maeda.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online June 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Political History; Urban History; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity). 7753 words.

The Asian American Movement was a social movement for racial justice, most active during the late 1960s through the mid-1970s, which brought together people of various Asian ancestries in...

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Asian Americans and the Cold War

Madeline Y. Hsu.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online May 2015 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; US History (Immigration and Ethnicity); Political History. 8246 words.

The global political divides of the Cold War propelled the dismantling of Asian exclusion in ways that provided greater, if conditional, integration for Asian Americans, in a central aspect...

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Atomic Anxieties

Asa McKercher.

in Camelot and Canada

September 2016; p ublished online August 2016 .

Chapter. Subjects: History of the Americas; Political History. 14276 words.

Common Cold War interests united Canada and the United States in the summer of 1961 as a crisis with the Soviet Union over the status of Berlin had the potential to devolve into war. As...

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Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator

D. W. Hayton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Protestantism and Protestant Churches; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 6392 words.

Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born on 6 March 1663 at Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, the younger son of Lewis Atterbury...

Balfour, Robert, fifth Lord Balfour of Burleigh (d. 1757), murderer and Jacobite sympathizer

Margaret D. Sankey.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; British History; Political History; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 373 words.

Balfour, Robert, fifth Lord Balfour of Burleigh (d. 1757), murderer and Jacobite sympathizer, was the son of Robert Balfour, fourth Lord Balfour of Burleigh (d. 1713), and Lady Margaret...

Barclay, Sir George (c. 1636–1710), army officer and Jacobite conspirator

Paul Hopkins.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 2652 words.

Barclay, Sir George (c. 1636–1710), army officer and Jacobite conspirator, was probably born in Kincardineshire, the son of Andrew Barclay of 'Sheels', who was of an unrecorded cadet branch...

Barry, James, fourth earl of Barrymore (1667–1748), politician and Jacobite conspirator

Stephen W. Baskerville.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 1633 words.

Barry, James, fourth earl of Barrymore (1667–1748), politician and Jacobite conspirator, was the younger son of Richard Barry, second earl of Barrymore (bap. 1630, d. 1694), and his third...