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American Political History

Donald Critchlow.

December 2014; p ublished online February 2015 .

Book. Subjects: Political History; US Social History; Regional Political Studies. 168 pages.

American Political History: A Very Short Introduction explores key turning points in American political history, the nature of the two-party system, representative presidential and...

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Antimonopoly in American Politics, 1945–2000

Daniel Scroop.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online February 2018 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; Economic History. 8716 words.

Antimonopoly, meaning opposition to the exclusive or near-exclusive control of an industry or business by one or a very few businesses, played a relatively muted role in the history of the...

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Ashton, John (c. 1653–1691), official in the royal household and Jacobite conspirator

Paul Hopkins.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History; Social and Cultural History. 1558 words.

Ashton, John (c. 1653–1691), official in the royal household and Jacobite conspirator, was the son of Andrew Ashton (d. 1679), of Liverpool, and his wife, Alice. His father was apparently a...

Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator

D. W. Hayton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Protestantism and Protestant Churches; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 6392 words.

Atterbury, Francis (1663–1732), bishop of Rochester, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born on 6 March 1663 at Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire, the younger son of Lewis Atterbury...

Balfour, Robert, fifth Lord Balfour of Burleigh (d. 1757), murderer and Jacobite sympathizer

Margaret D. Sankey.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; British History; Political History; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice. 373 words.

Balfour, Robert, fifth Lord Balfour of Burleigh (d. 1757), murderer and Jacobite sympathizer, was the son of Robert Balfour, fourth Lord Balfour of Burleigh (d. 1713), and Lady Margaret...

Barclay, Sir George (c. 1636–1710), army officer and Jacobite conspirator

Paul Hopkins.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 2652 words.

Barclay, Sir George (c. 1636–1710), army officer and Jacobite conspirator, was probably born in Kincardineshire, the son of Andrew Barclay of 'Sheels', who was of an unrecorded cadet branch...

Barry, James, fourth earl of Barrymore (1667–1748), politician and Jacobite conspirator

Stephen W. Baskerville.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 1633 words.

Barry, James, fourth earl of Barrymore (1667–1748), politician and Jacobite conspirator, was the younger son of Richard Barry, second earl of Barrymore (bap. 1630, d. 1694), and his third...

Berkenhead, William (bap. 1648, d. 1701), Jacobite spy

Andrew I. M. Duncan.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 975 words.

Berkenhead, William (bap. 1648, d. 1701), Jacobite spy, was apparently born at Northwich in Cheshire and baptized there in Witton Chapel on 3 April 1648. His parents were Randolph...

Bernardi, John (1657–1736), army officer and Jacobite conspirator

T. F. Henderson.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 1002 words.

Bernardi, John (1657–1736), army officer and Jacobite conspirator, was born at Evesham, Worcestershire, the son of Francis Bernardi (b. c.1627), a Genoese nobleman and agent at the court of...

Boyle, Charles, fourth earl of Orrery (1674–1731), politician and Jacobite conspirator

Lawrence B. Smith.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 2252 words.

Boyle, Charles, fourth earl of Orrery (1674–1731), politician and Jacobite conspirator, was born in Little Chelsea near Kensington, Middlesex, on 28 July 1674, not 1676 as stated in the Dic...

Bulkeley [née Stuart], Lady Sophia (fl. 1660–1718), Jacobite sympathizer

Jennett Humphreys.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; British History; Political History. 710 words.

Bulkeley [née Stuart], Lady Sophia (fl. 1660–1718), Jacobite sympathizer, was the younger daughter of Walter Stuart or Stewart (d. in or before 1657), a physician and MP for Monmouth, and...

Butler, James, second duke of Ormond (1665–1745), army officer, politician, and Jacobite conspirator

Stuart Handley.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Military History; Land Forces and Warfare; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 4599 words.

Butler, James, second duke of Ormond (1665–1745), army officer, politician, and Jacobite conspirator, was born in Dublin Castle on 29 April 1665, the second and eldest surviving son of...

Byrom, Elizabeth [Beppy] (1722–1801), Jacobite sympathizer and diarist

Joyce F. Goodman.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; British History; Political History; Literature; Literary Studies (Fiction, Novelists, and Prose Writers). 660 words.

Byrom, Elizabeth [Beppy] (1722–1801), Jacobite sympathizer and diarist, was born on 1 January 1722 and baptized at the college church, Manchester, on 8 January. She was the eldest child of...

Caesar, Charles (1673–1741), politician and Jacobite agent

Lionel M. Munby.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: UK Politics; British History; Political History. 1147 words.

Caesar, Charles (1673–1741), politician and Jacobite agent, was born in London on 21 November 1673, the eldest of four children of Sir Charles Caesar (1654–1694), politician, and Susanna (dnull...

Cameron, Archibald (1707–1753), physician and Jacobite conspirator

Roger Turner.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Medicine and Health; Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 1036 words.

Cameron, Archibald (1707–1753), physician and Jacobite conspirator, was the fourth son of John Cameron (c.1663–1748), laird of Lochiel, and his wife, Isabel, daughter of Alexander Campbell...

Cecil, William (1676–1745), Jacobite conspirator and agent

Lawrence B. Smith.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 1117 words.

Cecil, William (1676–1745), Jacobite conspirator and agent, was born in December 1676 at Wakefield, the only son of John Cecil, of Northgate Hall in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and Anne...

Charnock, Robert (1663–1696), Jacobite conspirator

Paul Hopkins.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Law; Criminology and Criminal Justice; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 2141 words.

Charnock, Robert (1663–1696), Jacobite conspirator, was born on 2 February 1663 and baptized on 16 February at St Mary's Church, Warwick, the third son among seven children of Robert...

Chesterton, Arthur Kenneth (1899–1973), journalist and political activist

David Renton.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Journalism; Politics; Political Theory; Political History. 731 words.

Chesterton, Arthur Kenneth (1899–1973), journalist and political activist, was born on 1 May 1899, at Krugesdorp, near Johannesburg, Transvaal republic, the only son of Arthur George...

Civilian Nuclear Power

Daniel Pope.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

P ublished online June 2019 .

Article. Subjects: US History since 1945; Political History; Economic History; History of Science and Technology; Environmental History. 10023 words.

Nuclear power in the United States has had an uneven history and faces an uncertain future. Promising in the 1950s electricity “too cheap to meter,” nuclear power has failed to come close...

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Collingwood, George (c. 1679–1716), Jacobite insurgent

Tamsyn Hadden.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Politics; UK Politics; British History; Political History. 581 words.

Collingwood, George (c. 1679–1716), Jacobite insurgent, was born in Eslington, Northumberland, the eldest son of William Collingwood (c.1654–1715), gentleman, and Mary (b. 1659), daughter...