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History of the Americas x Arts and Humanities x Archaeology x clear all

cacao

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

[Sp]

Seed pod from an evergreen tree (Theobroma cacao) native to the tropical lowlands of South and Central America from which chocolate is made. Cacao attained importance as a...

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Casas Grandes

Overview page. Subjects: History of the Americas — Archaeology.

Also known as Paquimé, was once one of the largest and most influential communities in the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Casas Grandes is located in northwestern Chihuahua at the...

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ceremonial centre

Overview page. Subjects: History of the Americas — Archaeology.

[MC]

In Mesoamerica, ceremonial centres represent one interpretation for the main form of urban site, especially in the Olmec and Maya civilizations. Each centre typically...

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chacmool

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

[Ar]

A type of anthropomorphous altar found on Mesoamerican religious sites dating to the early 1st millennium ad. The top of the stone altar is adorned with a reclining human...

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chenes

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

[De]

An architectural style of the Lowland Maya of central Yucatán current during the later 1st millennium ad. Characterized by the use of elaborately decorated pre‐cut veneer...

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Chichimec

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

[CP]

A general term used to refer to simple village farmers living on the northern fringes of Mesoamerica around the turn of the 1st millennium ad. The Chichimec were regarded as...

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Copán

Overview page. Subjects: History of the Americas — Archaeology.

Is a major Classic Maya royal center on the southeastern frontier of Mesoamerica. Between a.d. 400 and 800 it was the capital of a regional polity covering several hundred square ...

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El Mirador

Overview page. Subjects: History of the Americas — Archaeology.

[Si]

Large settlement site of the Mayan Lowlands dating to the late Formative (Pre‐Classic) period. Construction began about 150 bc and the site was abandoned about ad 150....

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Hedges, Frederick Albert Mitchell- (1882–1959), adventurer and travel writer

Raymond John Howgego.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

P ublished online October 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Archaeology; Maps and Map-making; History of the Americas; World History; Travel and Holiday. 1772 words.

Hedges, Frederick Albert Mitchell- (1882–1959), adventurer and travel writer, was born in Barnsbury, Islington, London, on 22 October 1882, the eldest of four children of John Hedges...

Kaminaljuyú

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

The major Maya urban center of the Central Guatemalan Highlands from the Middle Formative (Preclassic) until the end of the Classic period (1000 bce–900 ce). Its fortunes fluctuated, but...

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La Venta

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

Archaeological knowledge of the Olmec Civilization, until quite recently, came almost exclusively from the site of La Venta, located on an old channel of the Río Tonalá in the state ...

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Manuel Gamio

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

(1883–1960) [Bi]

Mexican archaeologist, at one time a student of Franz Boas, well known for his systematic approach to the study of regions and stratigraphy. In 1911 he established...

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Matthew W. Stirling

Overview page. Subjects: History of the Americas — Archaeology.

(1896–1975) [Bi]

American archaeologist who carried out numerous investigations and surveys of Olmec sites in Mesoamerica, including La Venta, San Lorenzo, Tres Zapotes, and Cerro...

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Maya

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

An American Indian people of Yucatán and elsewhere in Central America, with a civilization which developed over an extensive area of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize from the 2nd...

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Mayapán

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

A large archaeological site on the stony, semi-arid karstic plain of northwestern Yucatán, about 40 kilometers (25 miles) south-southeast of Mérida (20°37′47.88″N, 89°27′41.40″W). The site...

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Mixtec

Overview page. Subjects: History of the Americas — Archaeology.

[CP]

Pre‐Classic chiefdom‐based communities sharing cultural and linguistic affinities, centred on Oaxaca in Mexico during the period ad 700–1500. Mixtec craftsmen excelled in...

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Monte Albán

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

An ancient city, now in ruins, in Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Occupied from the 8th century bc, it was a centre of the Zapotec culture from about the 1st century bc to the 8th century ad,...

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Oaxaca

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

Situated primarily in the Southern Highlands of Mexico, the state of Oaxaca is a 94,211-square-kilometer region of great diversity—environmental, ethnic, and linguistic. Although less...

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Pacal

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

[Na]

Ruler of Palenque, Mexico, between ad 615 and 682, during which time the town became an important centre of the Maya Lowlands. When Pacal died he was buried in a subterranean...

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Palenque

Overview page. Subjects: Archaeology — History of the Americas.

The site of a former Mayan city in SE Mexico, south-east of present-day Villahermosa. The well-preserved ruins of the city, which existed from about ad 300 to 900, include notable examples...

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