Oxford Index Browse

You are looking at 1-20 of 104 items for:

Linguistics x Classical Studies x clear all

Agriculture and Agricultural Technology

Michael Decker.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4067 words.

A misconception about Byzantium is that its agriculture was not technically advanced. In reality, Byzantine farmers were effective in sustaining the population for more than a thousand...

Go to »  abstract

Allen, Alexander (1814–1842), philologist and classical scholar

James Mew.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Linguistics; Classical Studies. 346 words.

Allen, Alexander (1814–1842), philologist and classical scholar, was born at Hackney, Middlesex, on 23 September 1814, the son of John Allen (1771–1839), a dissenting layman and author of A...

alphabet, Greek

John William Pirie, Lilian Hamilton Jeffery and Alan Johnston.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Classics

P ublished online July 2015 .

Article. Subjects: Greek and Roman Archaeology; Historical and Diachronic Linguistics. 953 words.

In early Greece various forms of alphabet were current but all derived from a *Phoenician (Semitic) source, which must have...

Go to »  abstract

Ancient Near Eastern City-States

Steven J. Garfinkle.

in The Oxford Handbook of the State in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean

February 2013; p ublished online January 2013 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages; Greek and Roman Law; Classical History. 12171 words.

This chapter examines the history of the formation of city-states in the Fertile Crescent. It provides a working definition of city-state in both spatial and social terms, and describes the...

Go to »  abstract

Archaeology

James Crow.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4695 words.

The archaeology of the Byzantine Empire has not generated much interest, with Byzantine remains and monuments rarely taking centre stage in the major archaeological sites of the ancient...

Go to »  abstract

The Army

John F. Haldon.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3595 words.

The Byzantine armies of the fifth and sixth centuries were divided into two branches: stationary frontier units called limitanei and mobile forces known as comitatenses. The comitatenses we...

Go to »  abstract

Art and Iconoclasm

Robin Cormack.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 2818 words.

Iconoclasm (from the word eikonoklastes, "imagebreaker") can be interpreted in two ways. It may refer to the process of the reassertion of imperial power in the state after a period of...

Go to »  abstract

Art and Liturgy

Nancy P. Ševčenko.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4068 words.

Liturgical art in Byzantium was known for its polyvalence as well as its ability to function and communicate on various levels and in various settings. Virtually all the arts of Byzantium...

Go to »  abstract

Art and Pilgrimage

Jaś Elsner.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4028 words.

In Byzantium, pilgrimage inspired various forms of visual art. These sacred arts span a wide range of image-making from tokens and souvenirs to masterpieces designed to adorn the...

Go to »  abstract

Art and Text

Henry Maguire.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3701 words.

Rhetoric occupied a central place in Byzantine literature. One of the genres of rhetoric is ekphrasis, defined in the ancient rhetorical handbooks as the description of "persons, deeds,...

Go to »  abstract

Art and the Periphery

Antony Eastmond.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3279 words.

Many modern historians and art historians disagree about art and the periphery in the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine writers such as Niketas Choniates argued that Constantinople was the centre...

Go to »  abstract

Bentley, Richard (1662–1742), philologist and classical scholar

Hugh de Quehen.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Linguistics; Classical Studies. 7342 words.

Bentley, Richard (1662–1742), philologist and classical scholar, was born on 27 January 1662 at his maternal grandparents' house at Oulton, Yorkshire, the second child of Thomas Bentley (bapnull...

Book Production

John Lowden.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4045 words.

Book production in Byzantium was a long and complex process, requiring a wide range of materials and skills. Every Byzantine book was a "manuscript", that is, handwritten, and mostly in...

Go to »  abstract

Brickstamps

Jonathan Bardill.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3322 words.

Analysis of brickstamps and mould-made marks can yield important insights into the organization of the brickmaking industry during the Byzantine Era. Brickstamps also serve as a valuable...

Go to »  abstract

Building Materials and Techniques

Jonathan Bardill.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 7738 words.

Byzantium employed stone (including marble), brick (of mud or clay), mortar (of varying qualities), and timber as its main building materials the use of which was determined by availability...

Go to »  abstract

Bureaucracy and Aristocracies

Jean-Claude Cheynet.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 4053 words.

The reign of Herakleios essentially marked the medieval era in Byzantium. In order to adapt to the new conditions, the emperors were forced to modify administrative structures. One of the...

Go to »  abstract

Byzantine Theology

Andrew Louth.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 5759 words.

Byzantine theology owes a great deal to the Christian Scriptures. Among the ideas learned by Byzantine theologians from the Scriptures was the existence of a sovereign God who created the...

Go to »  abstract

Ceramics

Pamela Armstrong.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 6415 words.

In the Byzantine Empire, ceramics were used in food preparation, cooking, and dining. Based on classification of tablewares, ceramic production can be divided into four main chronological...

Go to »  abstract

Chadwick, John (1920–1998), classical philologist

J. T. Killen.

in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

September 2004; p ublished online September 2004 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Education; Linguistics; Classical Studies. 1100 words.

Chadwick, John (1920–1998), classical philologist, was born at 18 Christ Church Road, Mortlake, Surrey, on 21 May 1920, the younger son of Fred Chadwick, civil servant, and his wife,...

Charitable Institutions

Timothy Miller.

in The Oxford Handbook of Byzantine Studies

October 2008; p ublished online November 2012 .

Article. Subjects: Classical Studies; Middle Eastern Languages. 3706 words.

During the Byzantine Era, a network of philanthropic institutions offered a variety of services, from sheltering travellers and homeless migrants to providing free medical care for the...

Go to »  abstract