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American Structuralism

Margaret Thomas.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories. 15415 words.

American structuralism is a label attached to a heterogeneous but distinctive style of language scholarship practiced in the United States, the heyday of which extended from...

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Argument Realization in Syntax

Malka Rappaport Hovav.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Semantics. 13490 words.

Words are sensitive to syntactic context. Argument realization is the study of the relation between argument-taking words, the syntactic contexts they appear in and the interpretive...

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Artificial Languages

Alan Reed Libert.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online June 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Language Families. 6215 words.

Artificial languages—languages which have been consciously designed—have been created for more than 900 years, although the number of them has increased considerably in recent decades, and...

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Bare Nominals

Bert Le Bruyn, Henriëtte de Swart and Joost Zwarts.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online May 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Linguistic Theories; Semantics. 9115 words.

Bare nominals (also called “bare nouns”) are nominal structures without an overt article or other determiner. The distinction between a bare noun and a noun that is part of a larger nominal...

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Blocking

Franz Rainer.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online June 2016 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Language Acquisition. 8771 words.

Blocking can be defined as the non-occurrence of some linguistic form, whose existence could be expected on general grounds, due to the existence of a rival form. *Oxes, for example, is...

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Bracketing Paradoxes in Morphology

Heather Newell.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Phonetics and Phonology; Semantics. 11414 words.

Bracketing paradoxes—constructions whose morphosyntactic and morpho-phonological structures appear to be irreconcilably at odds (e.g., unhappier)—are unanimously taken to point to truths...

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Case

Andrej L. Malchukov.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 10862 words.

Morphological case is conventionally defined as a system of marking of a dependent nominal for the type of relationship they bear to their heads. While most linguists would agree with this...

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Case and alignment

Ian Roberts.

in Parameter Hierarchies and Universal Grammar

June 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Linguistic Theories. 47035 words.

Case parameters determine, directly or indirectly, many aspects of grammatical-function realization, change, and alignment. The classic example of a grammatical-function-changing operation...

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Case Interactions in Syntax

Jessica Coon and Clint Parker.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online June 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 11217 words.

The phenomenon of case has been studied widely at both the descriptive and theoretical levels. Typological work on morphological case systems has provided a picture of the variability of...

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Clitics and Clitic Clusters in Morphology

Eulalia Bonet.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online August 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 7811 words.

Clitics can be defined as prosodically defective function words. They can belong to a number of syntactic categories, such as articles, pronouns, prepositions, complementizers, negative...

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Computational Phonology

Jane Chandlee and Jeffrey Heinz.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Computational Linguistics; Linguistic Theories; Phonetics and Phonology; Language Acquisition; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 15296 words.

Computational phonology studies the nature of the computations necessary and sufficient for characterizing phonological knowledge. As a field it is informed by the theories of computation...

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Conclusion

Ian Roberts.

in Parameter Hierarchies and Universal Grammar

June 2019; p ublished online August 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Linguistic Theories. 4881 words.

This chapter concludes the book and considers the implications and outlook for future research. The eleven hierarchies presented in the earlier chapters are presented together, and their...

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Conditions on prominent internal possessors in Turkish

Asli Göksel and Balkiz Öztürk.

in Prominent Internal Possessors

March 2019; p ublished online May 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Linguistic Theories. 9642 words.

This chapter investigates the syntactic properties of the prominent possessor constructions in Turkish. Possessors of possessive phrases become prominent only in a set of well-defined...

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Connectionism in Linguistic Theory

Xiaowei Zhao.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online January 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Phonetics and Phonology; Language Acquisition; Semantics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 9638 words.

Connectionism is an important theoretical framework for the study of human cognition and behavior. Also known as Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) or Artificial Neural Networks (ANN),...

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Construction Morphology

Geert Booij.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 7462 words.

Construction Morphology is a theory of word structure in which the complex words of a language are analyzed as constructions, that is, systematic pairings of form and meaning. These...

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Deixis and Pragmatics

William F. Hanks.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Cognitive Linguistics; Language Families; Linguistic Theories; Pragmatics; Sociolinguistics. 8563 words.

Deictic expressions, like English ‘this, that, here, and there’ occur in all known human languages. They are typically used to individuate objects in the immediate context in which they are...

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Denominal Verbs in Morphology

Heike Baeskow.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Semantics. 11375 words.

Denominal verbs are verbs formed from nouns by means of various word-formation processes such as derivation, conversion, or less common mechanisms like reduplication, change of pitch, or...

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Disjoint and reflexive prominent internal possessor constructions in Chimane

Sandy Ritchie.

in Prominent Internal Possessors

March 2019; p ublished online May 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Grammar, Syntax and Morphology; Linguistic Theories. 9720 words.

This chapter examines two types of prominent internal possessor constructions in Chimane (unclassified, Bolivia). In the first type, possessors internal to object arguments which are...

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Displacement in Syntax

Klaus Abels.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Semantics; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 11422 words.

Displacement is a ubiquitous phenomenon in natural languages. Grammarians often speak of displacement in cases where the rules for the canonical word order of a language lead to the...

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Distributed Morphology

Jonathan David Bobaljik.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics

P ublished online March 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Linguistic Theories; Grammar, Syntax and Morphology. 15796 words.

Distributed Morphology (DM) is a framework in theoretical morphology, characterized by two core tenets: (i) that the internal hierarchical structure of words is, in the first instance,...

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