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῾Abbasid Caliphate

Alastair Northedge.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 2828 words.

As the result of a revolution that culminated In 750ce in the defeat of the last Umayyad caliph, Marwan

Abel, Félix-Marie

Jerome o. p. Murphy-O'Connor.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 427 words.

of history and geography at the École Biblique et Archéologique Française in Jerusalem from 1905 to 1953. Abel went

Abila

W. Harold Mare.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1543 words.

city of the Decapolis, located about 15 km (9 mi.) north-northeast of Irbid in northern Jordan. Abila has an occupational

Abu Ḥamid, Tell

Zeidan A. Kafafi and Genevieve Dollfus.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1105 words.

site located in the Jordan Valley, at 240 m below sea level, on Lisan marl deposits between two small wadis

Abu Hawam, Tell

William G. Dever.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 502 words.

10-acre mound on the Mediterranean coast near where the Kishon River empties into the bay of Haifa (map reference 151

Abu Salabikh

J. N. Postgate.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1131 words.

city of the fourth and third millennia in southern Iraq, located at the center of the Mesopotamian alluvial plain between

Abu Simbel

David O'Connor.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 991 words.

colossal temple complex located in the northern Sudan about 200 km (186 mi.) up the Nile from Aswan (22°21′ N,

Abydos

Diana Craig Patch.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1287 words.

one of ancient Egypt's most sacred sites, located in the eighth Upper Egyptian nome, or province (26°11′ N, 31°55′ E).

Achziv

M. W. Prausnitz.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1368 words.

site located on the Mediterranean coast of Israel, 15 km (9 mi.) north of Akko and 25 km (15 mi.)

Adab

Harriet Crawford.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 687 words.

mounds located in a desert area of southern Iraq about 40 km (25 mi.) due east of the modern town

Aden

David A. Warburton.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 862 words.

since antiquity a major port city (12°46′ N, 45°02′ E) on the Gulf of Aden, now in Yemen. Modern Aden

Adulis

Marilyn E. Heldman.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 826 words.

important ancient coastal trading center in Ethiopia (now in Eritrea; 15°17′ N, 39°40′ E). Located on the deep Gulf of

Aegean Islands

A. Bernard Knapp.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 4827 words.

The purpose of this essay is to situate the Aegean Islands in their own social, economic and cultural milieu as

Agriculture

David C. Hopkins.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 6232 words.

The broad array of activities and knowledge whereby human communities exploit plants to produce food and other crops (fibers and

Aharoni, Yohanan

Avi Ofer.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 623 words.

Born in Germany, Aharoni went to Palestine as a young man. His character and his desire to explore Israel were

Ahiram Inscription

Javier Teixidor.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 473 words.

The sarcophagus of Ahiram found in Byblos, in Lebanon, by French archaeologists In 1923 is one of the most important

Ai

Robert E. Cooley.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1465 words.

biblical site located east of Bethel (Gn.12:8, Jos.7:2). Three sites on the perimeter of modern

῾Ain Dara῾

Ali Abou Assaf.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1063 words.

site located in Syria's ῾Afrin valley, upstream from the ῾Amuq plain, about 67 km (42 mi.) northwest of Aleppo and

῾Ain Es-Samiyeh

William G. Dever.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 857 words.

an exceptionally strong, perennial spring some 19 km (12 mi.) north-northeast of Jerusalem, at the northeastern foot of Ba῾al Hazor,

῾Ain Ghazal

Gary O. Rollefson.

in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

November 1996; p ublished online April 2009 .

Reference Entry. Subjects: Archaeology of the Near East; Religious Studies; Biblical Studies. 1863 words.

site located in the Wadi Zerqa, at the northeast edge of Amman, Jordan (31° 59′ N, 35°58′ E). Highway construction