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African Charter on Human and People's Rights

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — World History.

A charter adopted by the Organization of African Unity (now the African Union) in 1981 and ratified by 35 of its members. The Charter reaffirms the duty of African states to eliminate...

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The American century?

Andrew Preston.

in American Foreign Relations: A Very Short Introduction

July 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Diplomatic History; United States History; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 5509 words.

Despite rejecting the internationalist marriage Woodrow Wilson had arranged for it with the world, America was still the strongest state in the international system. ‘The American century?’...

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American Foreign Relations: A Very Short Introduction

Andrew Preston.

July 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Book. Subjects: Diplomatic History; United States History; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 168 pages.

For better or worse, be it militarily, politically, economically, technologically, or culturally, Americans have had a profound impact on the wider world beyond them. American Foreign...

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armistice

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Second World War.

ˈärmistis

n. an agreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time; a truce.

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Balthazar Ayala

Overview page. Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — International Law.

(1548–84),

Jurist of the Spanish Netherlands. His treatise on the law of war (De jure et officiis bellicis et disciplina militari, 1582) was an important contribution to the...

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The big three (or maybe four)

Michael S. Neiberg.

in The Treaty of Versailles: A Very Short Introduction

April 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: First World War; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality; Law of Treaties; History of Law. 5184 words.

In the early months of 1919, David Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson, and Georges Clemenceau together held as much influence over world affairs as any three men in history. They had the power to...

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Central American Common Market

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — World History.

(CACM or ODECA) An economic organization comprising Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. Beginning with a treaty signed by all five countries in 1960 the CACM sought...

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death penalty

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Military History.

There are conventional prohibitions on the death penalty in some human rights instruments; the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 15...

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Drafting the treaty

Michael S. Neiberg.

in The Treaty of Versailles: A Very Short Introduction

April 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: First World War; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality; Law of Treaties; History of Law. 5807 words.

Although primarily a diplomatic document, the Treaty of Versailles covered a wide range of subjects. Many of the articles of the treaty had little to do with Germany. The point was to...

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Dumbarton Oaks Conference

Overview page. Subjects: History — International Law.

(Aug.–Oct. 1944)

A number of meetings held at Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, DC. Attended by representatives of the USA, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China, it prepared for the...

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Expansionism

Andrew Preston.

in American Foreign Relations: A Very Short Introduction

July 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Diplomatic History; United States History; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 5335 words.

Over the course of nearly three hundred years, the people who inhabited what came to be called the United States enlarged their territorial holdings. As they did so, their belief that...

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First principles

Andrew Preston.

in American Foreign Relations: A Very Short Introduction

July 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Diplomatic History; United States History; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 5679 words.

The United States began its existence as an act of foreign policy. It is no exaggeration to say that the nation owes its very existence to the successful pursuit of war and diplomacy....

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forced Sterilization

Overview page. Subjects: United States History — International Law.

Linked to the idea of eugenics and the desire to breed out undesirable genetic faults, compulsory sterilization has, in the past, been undertaken by governments, especially during the first...

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From war to armistice to peace conference

Michael S. Neiberg.

in The Treaty of Versailles: A Very Short Introduction

April 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: First World War; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality; Law of Treaties; History of Law. 5138 words.

“From war to armistice to peace conference” outlines the events that took place from the summer of 1918, when it became clear that the Germans could not win the war, to the signing of the...

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Global America

Andrew Preston.

in American Foreign Relations: A Very Short Introduction

July 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Diplomatic History; United States History; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 5929 words.

By the end of the nineteenth century, the United States had become the world’s preeminent economic power. Yet for such a large and wealthy country, by 1890 the United States was in a...

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Hyperpower and its discontents

Andrew Preston.

in American Foreign Relations: A Very Short Introduction

July 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Diplomatic History; United States History; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 3112 words.

With the Cold War over, the United States found itself in a position of supremacy unmatched since the days of the Roman Empire. American power was supposed to stimulate the spread of...

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Ideals versus interests

Michael S. Neiberg.

in The Treaty of Versailles: A Very Short Introduction

April 2019; p ublished online March 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: First World War; Use of Force, War, Peace and Neutrality; Law of Treaties; History of Law. 5032 words.

“Ideals versus interests” considers the workings of the Paris Peace Conference by examining four different rationales for the shifting of post-imperial borders in Europe. Unfortunately,...

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Introduction

Andrew Preston.

in American Foreign Relations: A Very Short Introduction

July 2019; p ublished online April 2019 .

Chapter. Subjects: Diplomatic History; United States History; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 1315 words.

This introduction outlines some of the main topics in the history of American foreign relations. It explains the importance of seven key themes—moral values; a belief in expansion and...

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laws of War

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Military History.

International rules and conventions that limit belligerents' action.

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letters of marque

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Military History.

This term connotes the written authority given by a government to private parties to search and seize specified property of a foreign party, ostensibly on the grounds of punishing...

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