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blue helmet

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — International Law.

The name given to forces in UN peacekeeping operations after the color of the helmets (or berets) worn. See UN, The Blue Helmets (2nd ed. 1990).

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booby-trap

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — International Law.

‘Booby-trap means any device or material which is designed, constructed or adapted to kill or injure and which functions unexpectedly when a person disturbs or approaches an apparently...

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Brezhnev Doctrine

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — International Law.

Following democratic reforms in Czechoslovakia and the consequent incursion by Soviet and other Eastern European forces to restore the status quo ante in 1968, Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev...

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Caroline Affair

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Warfare and Defence.

The destruction by burning and casting adrift on the Niagra river the USS Caroline in 1838 by loyal Canadians. The ship had been dispatched with supplies and ammunition to aid ...

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Chemical Weapons Convention

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — International Law.

Properly styled the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, the convention was adopted on 3...

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child soldiers

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.

It is an offence under the Statute of the International Criminal Court to conscript or enlist children under the age of fifteen in the armed forces or use them to participate actively in...

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civilian

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Warfare and Defence.

Though the Fourth Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 is entitled the Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (75 U.N.T.S. 287), neither it nor ...

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Diplomacy and War

Robert Weiner and Paul Sharp.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies

March 2010; p ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution; Diplomacy and Consular Relations. 3423 words.

Scholars acknowledge that there is a close connection between diplomacy and war, but they disagree with regard to the character of this connection—what it is and what it ought to be. In...

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From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect

Kurt Mills and Cian O’Driscoll.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies

March 2010; p ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution; Human Rights. 12935 words.

In contrast with humanitarian access or the provision of humanitarian assistance, humanitarian intervention is commonly defined as the threat or use of force by a state to prevent or end...

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IFOR

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Warfare and Defence.

An acronym for the Implementation Force, established by art. I(1)(a) of Annex 1—A of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (GFAP or Dayton Agreement) of 14 ...

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International Law and Armed Conflict

Ward Thomas.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies

March 2010; p ublished online December 2017 .

Article. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution; International Law. 13070 words.

International law and armed conflict have a rather contentious history together. One the one hand, armed conflict implies and absence of law, and yet, on the other, international law plays...

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International Military Tribunal

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Warfare and Defence.

There were two International Military Tribunals established in the immediate post-World War II period. The Nuremberg Tribunal was set up by the Agreement for the Prosecution and Punishment...

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jus ad bellum

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — International Law.

[Latin: right to war]

The right to wage war.

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jus in bello

Overview page. Subjects: Warfare and Defence — International Law.

This term is habitually used by early writers to denote the corpus of the laws and customs of war, to be distinguished from the jus ad bellum, or right to ...

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The Law of Genocide

Robert Weiner.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies

March 2010; p ublished online January 2018 .

Article. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution; International Law. 8656 words.

Genocide is described as the most extreme form of crime against humanity; Winston Churchill even called it the “crime with no name.” The word “genocide” was coined by Raphael Lemkin, a...

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modus vivendi

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Warfare and Defence.

‘This is the title given to a temporary or provisional agreement, usually intended to be replaced later on, if circumstances permit, by one of a more permanent and detailed character. ...

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Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.

The OSCE emerged out of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), discussions for which were started in 1973 with the aim of providing a forum for discussion ...

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peaceful Coexistence

Overview page. Subjects: International Law — Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution.

“Peaceful coexistence” is a term invented and used during the Cold War by communist foreign-policy makers to describe the preferred nature of relationships between socialist and...

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peacemaking

Overview page. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution — International Law.

Insofar as it is a term of art, peacemaking is ‘action to bring hostile parties to agreement, essentially through such peaceful means as those foreseen in Chapter VI of the ...

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Postconflict Reparations

Peter J. Dixon, Luke Moffett and Adriana Rudling.

in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies

P ublished online April 2019 .

Article. Subjects: Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution; Human Rights; International Law. 12488 words.

The devastation brought by war leaves behind irreparable loss and destruction. Yet over the past 100 years there has been a concerted effort by states, both within their territory and...

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